VESTNIK 3(35) 2019

VESTNIK 3(35) 2019
Date publication on the site:
2019-09-17 09:50:23
Full journal in PDF:
UDC: 372.8
Authors: Svetlana A. Arefeva ; Olesya V. Arefeva;
The purpose of this article is to review the main approaches to compiling a technological map of a lesson as one of the modern forms of planning the educational process in the Russian language, to reveal the main activities of the teacher and students aimed at learning outcomes, to offer methodological materials for compiling a technological map of the lesson. The introduction describes the goals and objectives facing the teacher and implemented in the lesson; describes the main activities of the teacher and students in accordance with the requirements for the results of mastering the basic educational programme of basic general education: personal, metasubject and subject. The main part offers materials to help students in the development of their technological map of the Russian language lesson. The content of the system-activity approach and the features of the educational process organization in accordance with the planned educational results in the form of ways of activity, with which it is necessary to acquaint students for the successful formation of professional competencies, are revealed. Special attention is paid to the understanding of educational results as formed ways of students’ activities, including cognitive, communicative and regulatory universal learning activities. To help students, a sample of the technological map of the Russian language lesson is offered, examples of the formula-tion of universal learning activities, questions and tasks for independent and group work at a certain stage of the lesson are provided, with the help of which the students learn the lesson topic. The results of the study were tested in the educational process of the Mari State University, were reflected in authors’ publications, and reported at international and all-Russian scientific and practical conferences and seminars. The article provides information about the testing and implementation of research results. The conclusion of the article contains conclusions on the results of the study as a whole.
UDC: 371.13, 37.048.45
Authors: Natalya G. Arzamastseva; Valentina V. Konstantinova;
In recent years, the problem of the formation of ethnic tolerance of the individual has become one of the priority educational tasks throughout the world. The significance and importance of the problem under study is confirmed by a number of international and Russian legislative acts, which state that the content of education should facilitate the interaction between representatives of different nations, ensuring the development of spiritual, moral, socio-cultural qualities of the individual. We are of the opinion that the multicultural educational environment of a university is today becoming a place for the development of a student’s personality, his traditional cultural values, behavioral characteristics, social attitudes, ethnic tolerance. The aim of the research is to study the characteristics of the formation of students’ ethnic tolerance in the multicultural educational environment of the university. The main research methods are: theoretical analysis of the literature on the research problem, analysis of the results of questioning students of the Mari State University. Ethnic tolerance is considered as a socio-psychological characteristic of a person, characterizing the willingness to interact with representatives of ethnic groups, which can manifest itself in the form of social beliefs, strong-willed behavior. In modern pedagogy, ethnic tolerance is interpreted as a personality quality that characterizes a respectful attitude towards representatives of other nationalities, their religion, culture, views and customs. Ethnic tolerance is not inherent in a person from birth, it is acquired in the process of life, under the influence of many factors; family, school, higher educational institution become the most active institutions of ethnosocialization.
UDC: 378.881.116.11
Authors: Svetlana Yu. Vylegzhanina;
The introduction states thatcommunicative activeness is among competences which enable the student to be successful in his learning and his creative self-realization in student societies. However, most of first-year students are not ready to dialogue or spontaneous speech activity in classes, they have difficulties with monologue building, as well as with group communication. The aim of this article is to describe pedagogical conditions for the development of communicative activeness among students in Russian and Speech Culture classes. The following research methods were used: analysis of scientific literature, observation, pedagogical modeling and analysis of empirical experience. The results were obtained after experiments on the basis of FSBEI HE “Vyatka State University”. Three groups of pedagogical conditions were determined and described as follows: the organizational, psychological and methodical ones. Organizational conditions include factors of educational process organization, goal-setting and planning: arrangement of learning course in order to develop communicative activeness, providing independent study of theoretical material, the teacher and students’ interaction in social network. Psychological conditions are as follows: the creation of a psychologically comfortable and safe environment in classes, the formation of positive motivation in order to develop communicative activeness as a personality trait, the development of reflexivity. Methodical conditions include the selection of interesting subject content, increase in number of speach and communicative practices, creative tasks, the use of non-traditional methods, games, mobile videos. It is concluded that all stated conditions promote the development of communicative activeness. This is evidenced by the prevailing positive emotions in students, their ability to focus, involvement into work, an increase in the number of speech acts on the issues discussed, their readiness to make a presentation in class.
UDC: 372.881.1
Authors: Olga S. Vystropova ; Svetlana A. Krainikova ;
Introduction. This article discusses the peculiarity of the video resources use in teaching the English language at the medical university. The authors note the trend of the active use of video resources in professional training. The advantages of video resources for the educational process at the modern university are described in detail. Purpose. To analyze the peculiarity of the video resources use in teaching students-managers the English language at the medical university. To achieve our purpose, we set the following tasks: 1) to analyze and sys-tematize the scientific and methodological literature relevant to the set topic; 2) to analyze the published scien-tific articles on the theory and methodology of teaching foreign languages using interactive methods and educa-tional media resources (media resources); 3) to study the video resources of the video hosting site YouTube for the analysis of the material on the current topic of the curriculum in English for students-managers at the medical university on the example of the Volgograd State Medical University. Materials and methods. Electronic video resources from YouTube – the video hosting site that provides users with the services of storage, delivery and display of video. Methods used in our research are continuous sampling, analysis and synthesis. The methodological basis for our article is represented by the works of such contemporary authors as: Antonova I. V., 2011; Gudkova S. A., Yanitskiy A. I., 2017; Kochneva E. M., Zharova D. V., 2017; Krayneva N. M., Zolotova M. V., Grishakova E. S., 2016; Rachkovskaya L. A., 2018; Tretyak S. V., Antonova N. Yu., 2018; Khristolyubova A. A., 2016. Results, discussion. Video stimulates students’ interest in learning, expands their knowledge of the linguistic and cultural characteristics of the foreign language, and provides effective material for the following discussion. Video resources impart listening and speaking skills, they have the advantage over audio and print information. Conclusion. Visual information allows you better to understand and consolidate factual information, linguistic features of speech, activates attention and memory. As the additional tool, video improves the quality of teaching process.
UDC: 373
Authors: Irina S. Zimina ; Elena V. Kondratenko ;
Introduction. The existence of cause-and-effect relationship in the system of “students’ health – educational environment” determines the relevance of preparing future teachers for organizing a health-saving educational environment. As many researchers note, teachers working with children in various educational organizations are often not ready for health-saving activities. For a successful practical solution to the problem of maintaining health in the educational process, it is necessary to take into account the so-called “health-saving competence” of a teacher, suggesting his readiness for health-saving activities and the organization of a health-saving educational environment. Purpose: Modeling the readiness of future teachers to organize a health-saving educational environment. Materials and methods. The versatility of the future teacher’s readiness to the organization of a health-saving educational environment and the variety of factors influencing its result determine the use of such a method of pedagogical research as modeling. The modeling method makes it possible to combine the empirical and theoretical in pedagogical research – to combine an experiment, building logical structures and scientific abstractions in the course of studying a pedagogical object. Results, discussion. The process of forming the future teacher’s readiness to organize a health-saving educational environment can be represented as a model consisting of three components: theoretical-methodological, substantive-active and evaluative-effective one, which allows a more complete analysis of the structure and content of vocational training. The basis of the model under consideration is the goal – the identification of pedagogical conditions that contribute to the formation of readiness of future teachers to organize a health-saving educational environment in the process of vocational training. Achieving this goal is possible through problem solving, during which specific components of the future teacher’s readiness for this type of activity are formed. Conclusion. The success of the implementation of the model of formation of readiness for the organization of a health-saving educational environment for future teachers is determined by observing a set of pedagogical conditions created in the process of professional training.
UDC: 378.035.6
Authors: Darya V. Ivanova ; Valentina V. Konstantinova;
Introduction. The future of Russia depends on the degree of readiness of young generations to adequately respond to historical challenges, to protect the interests of a multinational state. The relevance of the topic is due to the fact that at present the system of civil-patriotic education of students in an educational organization requires improvement taking into account new realities. In modern Russia, migration processes are intensifying, which lead to a conflict of various cultural traditions and values. The continuity in the cultural and historical development of Russian society is being violated, the existing system of values is changing. Purpose. The goal of our research is to theoretically substantiate and practically verify the implementation of the organizational and pedagogical conditions of civil-patriotic education in higher professional education institutions. Materials and methods. In order to determine the level of civil and patriotic upbringing of students, a multidimensional questionnaire was conducted, including a range of questions in various areas: the specificity and state of patriotic consciousness, patriotism and nationalism, social well-being, value orientations of young people, factors influencing the formation of patriotic consciousness, the efficiency of forms of patriotic education of youth. Results, discussion. The diagnostic results showed that one of the reasons for the decline in the popularity of patriotism in Russian society is a change in the attitude of citizens towards their state. Many young people feel socially unprotected, they are worried about their future and the future of their country. The problem of the formation of patriotism in the youth environment is also associated with the lack of clear mechanisms for attracting young people to civil-patriotic activities. Conclusion. The problem of developping civil and patriotic feelings and beliefs should be solved through accounting and applying organizational and pedagogical conditions in the activities of the university.
UDC: 37.02
Authors: Mariya B. Kazachkova; Tatyana S. Dorokhova;
Introduction. This article describes the theoretical provisions affecting the content of creativity, creative activity, creative tasks, discusses and analyzes the methods and methods of organization of creative activities in teaching English in primary school. The article attempts to reveal the importance of the use of creative activities, creative tasks in English lessons, contributing to both the efficiency of learning and the disclosure of the creative potential of students. Purpose. The purpose is to present creative activities, creative tasks and determine their role in the development of intellectual and personal qualities of the student. Materials and methods. Based on the analysis of published and personal pedagogical experience, the authors give examples of creative tasks aimed at self-expression and development of cognitive interest of younger students. Research results, discussions. The authors note the role of creative tasks that contribute to the efficiency of the educational process and share a fragment of the interactive form of the lesson with the use of elements of creativity – an educational quest. Analyzing the content aspect of the quest, the authors come to the conclusion about its pedagogical, didactic, developing values. Educational quests contribute to the activation of cognitive activity and manifestation of creative abilities of students. Developed and tested by the authors educational quest showed that creative tasks contribute to the active involvement of students in the learning process, help to make the lesson interesting and dynamic, contribute to increasing the motivation of students to active cognitive activity, form the skills of critical thinking, analysis, classification of information, development of imagination, memory, creative thinking, curiosity, observation. Conclusion. The materials presented in the article can contribute to the creation of a common methodology for the organization of creative activity in English lessons in primary school.
UDC: 378.2
Authors: Sergey Yu. Lavrentiev; Dmitry A. Krylov;
Introduction. The modern period of reforming the entire system of vocational education is characterized by growing competition between educational institutions of various forms of ownership, and changes in the external socio-economic environment necessitated pedagogical consulting in the field of introducing innovations in the educational activities of universities. Purpose. The purpose of the article is to identify the main trends in the innovative development of pedagogical consulting abroad for the adaptation and effective use of promising educational technologies in the functioning of Russian university education. Materials and methods. To achieve the goal of scientific research, a set of theoretical methods was used, including a conceptual and terminological analysis of socio-economic, historical, social, and pedagogical literature, reflecting the main directions of development of educational consulting innovations. The composition of empirical studies includes: a qualitative analysis of graphically displayed data, direct and indirect pedagogical observation, content analysis of statistical data. Research results, discussions. Innovative interactive forms, methods and technologies that are implemented in the process of consulting activities, the degree of success of which depends both directly on the teacher and the students themselves, contribute to the successful learning of determining the individual trajectory of student self-development in the educational process of the University. Depending on the goals and objectives pursued by the participants in pedagogical consultation interaction, some methods of consulting innovative for the educational sector, such as “job shadowing”, “buddying”, “story telling”, “flipped classroom”, etc., find their application in the university. Conclusion. Thus, the above provisions allow us to attribute the trends of innovative, variable, open development of educational consulting to the leading ones.
UDC: 37.01(470.343)“19”
Authors: Vitalii T. Mikhailov;
Introduction. The article deals with the actual problem of modern pedagogical science – the formation and de-velopment of the national educational book as a historical and pedagogical phenomenon, which reflected the educational component of ethnic culture and determined the modern civilized development of non-Russian peoples of Russia and their ways of familiarizing with the achievements of Russian and universal cultural values. The objective: to conduct a systematic analysis of the national educational book as a phenomenon of material and spiritual culture of the Mari people. Materials and methods. As the main material are the initial educational books for joint training of Mari and Russian children, compiled by the educator of the Mari people P. P. Eruslanov at the end of the XIX century, as well as textbooks “Children's world” and “Native word” by K. D. Ushinsky and “Alphabet” and “New alphabet” by L. N. Tolstoy. The research is based on comparative-historical, cultural-historical, sociological methods and retrospective analysis of the traditional experience of creating a textbook. Results. The legacy of P. P. Yeruslanov in this field is theoretically comprehended, the conceptual foundations of his textbooks are revealed as a source of information about the national and educational policies of the Russian state and the socio-cultural life of the Mari people. His textbooks embodied the advanced methodological ideas of classics of pedagogy K. D. Ushinsky and L. N. Tolstoy: compliance of educational materials with the basic didactic principles of accessibility and consciousness, continuity in learning, the relationship of learning with life, taking into account the psychological characteristics of children, the development of creative abilities and independence, emotional-figurative and abstract-logical thinking of students. The reading texts corresponded to the principles of upbringing education, contained the ideas of humanism, contributed to the development of such children’s qualities as kindness, diligence, honesty, love of nature and native land. Conclusion. In this regard, the educational books of the Mari educator P. P. Eruslanov are of interest as a historical and cultural heritage, and at the same time as the most valuable experience of creating textbooks for the national school at the present stage. Keywords: Mari educator, classics of education, national educational book, conceptual framework.
UDC: 378.4
Authors: Aleksei V. Savchenkov; Natalya V. Uvarina;
The importance of “soft skills” for teaching activities is increasing every day. The concept of “soft skills” has been actively developed in Western pedagogical science since the beginning of 2000, in domestic science, a single approach to the interpretation of “soft skills” does not exist and, on the whole, rather limited attention is paid to this problem. Western and Russian scientists include the following components in “soft skills”: emotional intelligence, persuasion, finding an approach to people, communicative and managerial talents, ability to resolve conflict situations, preparedness for thoughtful risk, stress, stress and conflict, creativity, flexibility, inclination to finding alternative solutions. Most researchers consider the professional stability of teachers as an integrative quality of personality, as a key component of the teacher’s professional culture, as the stability of emotional reactions, the ability to regulate the emotional state, as a factor of successful professional activities in extreme situations. We understand this term as an integrative quality of a person, ensuring the ability of a teacher to carry out professional activities for a long time with a high level of emotional stability, productivity and efficiency in dynamically developing and extreme situations. The study was carried out on the basis of the Professional Pedagogical Institute of the South Ural Humanitarian Pedagogical University. The study involved 120 bachelors, 52 undergraduates and 27 teachers. Our empirical study has led us to the following conclusions: 1) most subjects of pedagogical activity are not familiar with the term “soft skills”, although when they become familiar with it, they consider it important for their future professional activities; 2) the majority of respondents is familiar with the term “professional sustainability” and considers it important for their professional activities. Also, the majority of respondents consider professional sustainability to be an important “soft skills” of teachers.
UDC: 378.1
Authors: Vera I. Toktarova; Svetlana N. Fedorova;
Introduction. The article brings the importance of the adaptive approach to studying of students in the electronic educational environment up to date. It notes the normative base and the interdisciplinary character of adaptation, which is studied in detail from the point of view of medical and biological, social and philosophical, psychological and pedagogical, technical and cybernetic and other approaches. Adaptation is considered from the point of view of the interaction of the system "man – electronic environment" determined by intrapsychic and environmental factors. At the same time, bidirectional interaction within the system, which determines the functional state of the subject of adaptation, plays a system-forming role. Purpose: theoretical justification and experimental verification of students’ adaptive capabilities to study in the electronic educational environment of the university. Materials and methods. The materials of the study are normative legal documents and research papers, which addressed the issues of students’ adaptation to learning using information and communication tools. The authors of the paper used theoretical and empirical research methods. Results, discussion. In order to study the adaptive capabilities of students to learn in the electronic educational environment of the university, the authors carried out experimental work among bachelor students of the majors 01.03.02 Applied Mathematics and Information Technologies (specialization: Programming and System Analysis) and 44.03.02 Psychological and Pedagogical Education (specialization: Pedagogics and Psychology of Preschool Education). The study showed that the students’ adaptation to learning in the electronic educational environment is a complex multidimensional process, the success of which is determined by the combination of the influence of external (environmental) and internal (subjective) nature on its results. Conclusion. The authors elicited the following conditions providing efficient adaptation of students to studying in the electronic educational environment of the university: the arrangement of studies within the electronic environment by gradually increasing the intensity, level and volume necessary to acquire educational material; the presence of constant feedback and a system of methodological / software and technical support; simultaneous implementation of various types of interactivity taking into account the individual characteristics and abilities of students; the availability of services for interaction and communication of students; the use of active methods and means of teaching academic subjects in the electronic environment contributing to the development of educational and cognitive interest; the use of electronic portfolios and storage repositories of students’ works to motivate the achievement of educational results.
UDC: 378; 331
Authors: Vera I. Toktarova; Svetlana N. Fedorova; Marina A. Mokoseeva; Nikolai V. Kuzmin; Ekaterina E. Fliginskikh;
Introduction. The relevance of the issue studied in the article is conditioned by the modernization of the National Qualification Framework in the Russian Federation focused on coping with the imbalance between increasing economic demands and less than fully realized possibilities of vocational education and training. Dynamic changes of social environment, active informatization process in education, strengthening of the role of a psychological component in teaching activities have radically changed the criteria for qualification profiles of modern teachers. Purpose: to conduct a comparative analysis of the Professional Standard for teachers and Federal State Educational Standards, to identify their significant features. Materials and methods. In the article the authors used the following methods: methods of theoretical and empirical studies, method of analysis and comparison of professional and personal qualities of a teacher according to the requirements of the Professional Standard. Results, discussion. The article considers the main elements of the Professional Standard for teachers, which served as a basis for identifying and building a cluster of job functions and competences the teacher should have. The authors compare the cluster with the new Federal State Educational Standards of Higher Education for the major “Teacher Education” (bachelor and master degree levels). They quote the findings of survey for teachers on the issues and prospects of implementation of professional standards into the Russian educational system. Conclusion. Due to urgency of the issue presented in the article it may be interesting and useful for teachers and content developers both from theoretical and practical points of view.
UDC: 372.881.161.1
Authors: Alan S. Tskhovrebov ;
The article presents the trends in the development of the linguo-didactic theory of syntactic error in modern ped-agogical practice, raises the question of the classification of syntactic errors in the method of teaching coherent Russian speech of students. The paper attempts to consider the linguo-didactic theory of syntactic errors in modern pedagogical science, namely in the Russian educational space; it provides a different typology of speech errors, which basically boils down to the fact that syntactic errors are considered in the prism of grammar. Analysis of the literature on the problem under study showed that speech defects can be qualified: a) as developmental and genetic errors associated with human speech activities, with his socialization (I. Yu. Chukanova); b) communicatively significant and insignificant errors (N. S. Fomina, A. P. Zhorova); c) errors of thinking, language errors, speech errors, errors of communication (A. Grigorieva); g) errors on aspects of language and types of speech activity (T. M. Balykhina); e) errors that lie in the shortcomings and gaps in knowledge of the language material (M. G. Kochneva); e) typical and atypical errors (H. P. Korchik); f) morphological and syntactic errors identified in accordance with the studied grammatical themes of the Russian language course (T. A. Khristolyubova). Having considered the issues of linguistic and didactic theory of speech (syntactic) errors, we can conclude that in the methodology of teaching the Russian language as a native, non-native and as a foreign language, syntactic error problem has no generally recognized and scientifically based classification. It is established that syntactic errors should be considered errors in the structure of the phrase, in the structure and meaning of a simple sentence, in the construction of a one-member and two-member simple sentences, and in a complex sentence – the wrong choice of conjunction or connective word, duplication of conjunctions, incorrect arrangement of parts of complex conjunction, extra correlative word in the main sentence, the simultaneous use of subordinating and co-ordinating conjunctions, violation of sentence boundaries. Taking into account all qualification types of syntax errors will allow the teacher to develop a model of pedagogical influence in order to predict and eliminate these errors.
UDC: 811.511.151
Authors: Lubov A. Abukaeva;
Introduction. Among Mari hospitality is considered one of the important factors in maintaining family and good neighbourly relations, therefore, one of the most important places in the concept sphere of the Mari language is occupied by the concept una ‘guest’. Purpose. The purpose of the article is a semantic-cognitive analysis of the structure of the concept una ‘guest’. Materials and methods. The object of study is the description of ceremonies, guest songs and proverbs. The conceptual analysis is carried out using semantic-cognitive, descriptive methods, and contextual analysis. Results, discussion. The figurative, encyclopedic and interpretative fields of the concept una were subjected to analysis. Visual figurative signs emphasize the appearance of the guests. The performance of feast songs is brought to the forefront by the audio images; the ability to conduct a pleasant conversation and perform traditional songs is significant in the image of a guest. The cognitive figurative component demonstrates respect for guests. In the evaluation zone of the concept una ‘guest’, such components as general and aesthetic evaluation are presented. The encyclopedic zone reflects the reasons and goals of guests’ arrival. The utilitarian zone demonstrates that the guests enable the hosts to show hospitality, the ability to observe rituals. The largest number of components is represented in the regulatory zone: hosts should invite, meet and regale the guests, to honor the honored guests, but at the same time to receive all guests with the same hospitality; give them songs and gifts; drive to visit relatives; properly see the guests off. The socio-cultural zone unites all other concept zones, since each of the zones is marked by traditions and rituals. Conclusion. The concept una ‘guest’ is one of the sustainable, actively broadcast. It contains important cultural information, it is a reflection of the system of attitudes and values of the Mari people.
UDC: 81`42
Authors: Irina V. Bondarenko;
Introduction. Interest in investigating linguopragmatic aspects of expressive syntactic constructions functioning in political texts is connected with the peculiarities of realisation of their impact potential on the addressee in the process of communication. Purpose: the aim of the research is revealing linguopragmatic characteristics of syn-tactic carriers of expressiveness used as a means of the audience consciousness manipulation in the process of political communication. Materials and methods. The research is based on the analysis of political texts of Eng-lish prime-ministers’ speeches placed on the official Internet site of the UK government using methods of prag-mo-linguistic analysis, content- and discourse-analysis as well as linguistic methods of stylistic analysis and con-textological analysis. Results, discussion. It is typical of English political speech to use different syntactical expressive means intensifying emotionality and persuasiveness of utterances. Parenthetical constructions com-plexifying structural and semantic sentence organization are used for improving sentence content, validating truth conditions of utterances, expressing speaker’s evaluation thus identifying the communicative intention of the orator. Unique structure of cleft sentences isolating the most essential information and investing it with expressiveness attracts hearers holding the audience attention on it. Specific rhythm and dynamics of the political text is created by parallel constructions having similar syntactic structures and backed up by the lexical repetition that help the speaker impose his attitude to communicated information. The speaker’s intentional sentence parceling into communicatively significant parceled constructions allows the orator to manipulate the audience attention by emphasizing meaningful centers of the utterance that are marked by the appropriate intonation and pauses in oral speech. Conclusion. Expressive syntactic constructions enrich the meaning and emotional content of utterances in the political text. They are characterized by a high degree of impact potential which allows them to grab the addressee attention, exert emotional response and realise effective manipulation of the audience consciousness.
UDC: 81
Authors: Elena P. Kartashova ; Almira R. Akhmedzianova ;
The article is devoted to the problem of self-presentation of a person creating in the Internet communication on the basis of meme creation. The typical features of these texts created by representatives of creative professions are considered, and the reasons for the appeal of the “creative human” to Internet memes for identification pur-poses are clarified. The authors consider the characteristic features of memes as varieties of creolized text and explain the use of quasi-synonymous terms “creolized text”, “demotivational poster”, “meme”. Particular atten-tion is paid to the characteristics of the meme as a creolized text, that is, the unity of the iconic and verbal com-ponents. The images in the memes are meaningful and become a kind of emblem, an identifying mark of the creative community: portraits of Leonardo da Vinci, Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin become symbols of representatives of a particular creative profession. The habits and peculiarities of life of the “creative human” are objectified in the verbal part of memes. This determines their key features: the dialogism, the accentualization of habitual features, the accentualization of non-standard abilities of the “creative human”, highlighted by the authors of the article. The article discusses the possible motivation for creating Internet memes by the “creative human”. The authors conclude that one of the main goals of creating memes is a comic effect. In addition, memes serve as a kind of markers of certain communities of creative people. On the one hand, this feature unites all Web users who can call themselves “creative humans”, on the other hand, it limits communities from users who are not members of the creative community. In other words, memes are an effective means of communication between creative people, preserving their right to self-expression and language play, as well as to create their own professional community on the Web.
UDC: 81‘272
Authors: Flera Ya. Khabibullina; Svetlana V. Agacheva;
Updating the vocabulary of any language is continuous, since the development of society is reflected in the ocabulary, and changes in language composition lead to lexical innovations. Significant changes in the political life of the states of the world at the end of the XX – beginning of the XXI centuries predetermined the appearance of a large number of neologisms in many languages. The Franco-German axis is fundamental in the European Union. Germany and France, as leaders of European integration, accumulate and produce lexical innovations that can fully reflect the modern political landscape, caused by both internal and external events, reforms, the migration and economic crisis, the fight against terrorism and international crime, the organization of new political and military alliances, with the protection of human rights and many other factors of the political life of modern Europe and the world. This explains the appearance of dictionaries of new words, as well as the publication of annual lists of additions of neologisms to classical dictionaries. The purpose of this article is to conduct a comparative analysis of the dictionaries of political neologisms of the German and French languages, to identify the most characteristic trends in their vocabulary, to establish the general and specific in the formation of neologisms in the political sphere. The object of the study is political neologisms, presented in monolingual and bilingual dictionaries, the subject is the ways of forming new lexical units in the political sector of the compared lan-guages. The material for the study was political neologisms, selected by the method of continuous sampling from the dictionary of D. Steffens and O. A. Nikitina, “German-Russian Dictionary of Neologisms”, as well as the dictionaries Le Petit Robert, Le Petit Larousse, La Toupie in French. The article uses comparative, lexicographic, component, word-formation analysis. The following main ways of forming new words in the field of politics are considered: semantic, word-formation and borrowing. Neologisms are divided into lexical-semantic groups expressing two basic concepts of political discourse: “power” and “politician”. Productive methods of political vocabulary enrichment in the studied languages are revealed. It has been established that the most common methods for the formation of neologisms in French and German are suffixation, prefixation, word-combination, telescopy, and to a lesser extent abbreviation. The studied material can be used in reading theoretical courses and conducting seminars on lexicology, comparative typology, country studies, theory and practice of translation, and so on.
Authors: Varvara E. Dobrovolskaya; Tatyana A. Zolotova;
State Russian House of Folk Art named after V.D. Polenov of the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation, Mari State University and the Republican Scientific and Methodological Center for Folk Art and Cultural and Leisure Activities jointly with the Ministry of Culture, Press and Nationalities of the Republic of Mari El and the Mari Research Institute of Language, Literature and History named after V. M. Vasiliev held on May 22–24, 2019 in Yoshkar-Ola the XXIV International Scientific Conference "Slavic traditional culture and the modern world. Father's house, small motherland, home country: the diversity of Russian folk traditions".