Current issue

Title:
VESTNIK 4 (44) 2021
Number:
4
Year:
2021
Date publication on the site:
2021-12-28 13:08:51
Full journal in PDF:
PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE USE OF MILITARY SPORTS ALL-AROUND IN THE PREPARATION OF MODERN YOUTH FOR MILITARY SERVICE
UDC: УДК 796.0–93.61/62 + 355.233.11
Section: PEDAGOGICS
Authors: Stanislav I. Koshkin ;
Introduction. The article discloses pedagogical aspects of the use of military sports all-around in the system of physical education in general and professional educational organizations, the preparation of young people for military service. The purpose of this article is to summarize theoretical studies and practical experience on the introduction of sports all-around in the practice of patriotic education and physical training of young men for service in the armed forces of the Russian Federation. Materials and methods. The leading re-search method of the stated topic is the method of analysis and modeling, which allows us to consider this prob-lem as a focused and organized process to improve the methodology for preparing modern youth for military service, the development of physical and moral qualities. The result of the study was the analysis of the peda-gogical aspects of the methodology for using military sports all-around in the system of training students of pre-conscription age for military service. The discussion confirmed the importance of practice-oriented research, systematization of work on the introduction of innovative pedagogical approaches to the use of military sports all-around in the practice of physical education, which contributes to the effective preparation of young men for military service. Conclusion. The practical experience of using military sports all-around in the system of physi-cal training and patriotic education of young men, formation of motivated readiness for service in the army is summarized. This article is useful for teachers of physical education, deputy leaders for educational work, em-ployees of military commissariats dealing with issues of physical development, patriotic education and motivat-ed readiness of young people to serve in the armed forces.
THE MAIN MEANS OF PHYSICAL SELF-DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS − FUTURE SPECIALISTS IN THE FIELD OF PHYSICAL CULTURE AND SPORTS
UDC: УДК 796.01.3(057.87)
Section: PEDAGOGICS
Authors: Tatyana N. Petrova ; Marfa N. Filimonova; Inna V. Vorobyeva;
Introduction. In the article, the authors present the main means of physical self-development of students − fu-ture specialists in physical culture and sports by means of a university sports-oriented environment. The pur-pose of this article is to reveal the problem of physical self-development of students − future specialists in phys-ical culture and sports in a motivating sports-oriented environment of the university, stimulating the growth of quantitative and qualitative indicators of sports readiness and to determine the main means of physical self-development of students − future specialists in the field of physical culture and sports. The methodological ba-sis of this study was formed by the leading provisions and psychological and pedagogical ideas that reveal stra-tegic guidelines for independent activity and self-organization of students in physical self-development, moni-toring of self-examination and self-diagnosis, etc. The research is based on the following principles: the devel-opment of educational and professional motivation of students; focus on physical self-development and self-improvement; orientation towards the student's independent choice within the framework of future professional activity of a certain sport; the use of active forms and methods of physical self-development. The main methods of this research in the context of the stated problem were theoretical (traditional study and analysis of scientific and pedagogical works, generalization of the experience of pedagogical activity of Russian universities in this area), and practical methods (comparison and comparison, generalization, modeling; methods of empirical re-search: observation, conversation, interviewing, questioning, testing, examination, study of the results of activi-ties, pedagogical experiment; questionnaires, observations, tests), methods of mathematical processing (Pearson and Fisher criterion). Research results, discussions. The authors of the article conclude that for the effective physical self-development of students − future specialists in the field of physical culture and sports, it is neces-sary, on the one hand, to organize a university sports-oriented developing environment, and on the other hand, to actualize and introduce into the educational process of the university the educational potential of physical self-development and ethnopedagogical content of folk pedagogy. Conclusion. The authors conclude that the main universal means of physical self-development of students are: 1) organization of a university sports-oriented environment; 2) involvement of each student in the field of ethnic physical culture, i.e. ethnosport, which is a factor in the formation of his socio-ethical and physical spiritual and moral base and promotes self-improvement and physical self-development in future professional activities.
ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF STUDENTS’ PROJECT ACTIVITIES BASED ON A DIGITAL FOOTPRINT
UDC: УДК 378
Section: PEDAGOGICS
Authors: Vera I. Toktarova; Dina A. Semenova ; Renat N. Zaripov ;
Introduction. Federal State Educational Standards of Higher Education presuppose a qualitative change in the organization of education in all its types and forms, including in the conditions of an electronic educational en-vironment. They also reflect the recommendations of the quality assurance of university education, achieving the effectiveness and quality of education is the most important task of any educational institution. At the same time, the assessment must meet such universal principles as concreteness (a clear definition of the criteria and evaluation base of assessment, approaches to its measurement); integrity (ensuring the full scope of requirements for learning outcomes); manufacturability (validity of methodological and technological means for obtaining evaluation information and performing the necessary calculations). Purpose: to determine the possibilities of using the digital footprint for evaluating students’ project activities. Materials and methods. The most important aspect of assessing the quality of training is the choice of assessment methods for measuring learning outcomes at various stages, taking into account competence, taxonomic and qualimetric approaches. In addition to standard methods of assessing the quality of training, we used methods of educational data engi-neering, which are aimed at measuring, collecting, analyzing and presenting data about students and contexts using their digital footprint in order to understand and optimize learning and the environment in which it occurs, determining the role of the student in teamwork, his contribution, usefulness, functionality, etc. Research results, discussions. Features of the evaluation of project work using the students’ digital footprint analysis give a more detailed analysis of both the project and the project team members. Conclusion. Using the student’s digital footprint as an assessment method allows you to differentiate the marks of students depending on the volume and quality of the work performed on the project.
MACROCONCEPT POWER IN THE ASPECT OF MOTIVATING SIGNS
UDC: УДК 81`27
Section: PHILOLOGY
Authors: Eugenia Е. Demidova;
Introduction. The relevance of the research is to identify the first signs of the power macroconcept in the aspect of its syncretic first images and their preservation in Russian linguoculture. The purpose of the article is to iden-tify the motivating signs of the Russian macroconcept power. Tasks: 1. Analysis of the relevant articles of the main representative of the macroconcept in the etymological dictionaries of the Russian language. 2. Determi-nation of the complete set of motivating signs of the power macroconcept. 3. Studying the language material in the aspect of actualizing the motivating signs of the macroconcept under study. The scientific novelty of the work lies in the first experience of addressing the motivating signs of the power macroconcept. The article ana-lyzes the etymological dictionaries of the Russian language to achieve the goal. Materials and methods. The main research methods are descriptive, interpretive, component analysis of dictionary definitions. The Russian National Corpus (www.ruscorpora.ru) has become a source of language material; 12 etymological and historical-etymological dictionaries of the Russian language served as a source of identifying the motivating signs of the power macroconcept. Research results. The identified 20 motivating signs are combined into 6 blocks: 1. So-cial status (8 signs); 2. Social sphere (5 signs); 3. Sovereign sphere (2 signs); 4. Regional sphere (2 signs); 5. Re-ligious sphere (2 signs); 6. Property sphere (1 sign). All motivating signs remain relevant in Russian linguocul-ture, they are relevant to the modern macroconcept, i.e. become conceptual. This is indicated by illustrative ex-amples from the Russian National Corpus. The idea of power is associated with its concentration in the hands of the male population. This is the specificity of the power perception as a manifestation of the patriarchy of cul-ture.
CONCEPTUALIZATION OF KINSHIP IN RUSSIAN LINGUOCULTURE: MUNDANE, SACRED AND DESACRALIZED (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE MACROCONCEPT MOTHER AND THE CONCEPT SON)
UDC: УДК 81`27
Section: PHILOLOGY
Authors: Gulsaira O. Ibraimova; Altynai A. Kasymova;
Introduction. There is a relationship between the motivating signs of the macroconcept mother and its symbolic signs ('Mother of God', 'earth', 'breeding bee (queen)', 'beginning', 'reason', 'source') and motivating signs of the concept son ('pregnancy', 'having the closest relationship with something', 'younger prince (in relation to the grand duke)', 'descendant', 'child / person', 'childbirth', 'give birth / produce / procreate', '(by) born', 'fruit', 'originat-ing from someone or something'; '(second) hypostasis of the Trinity', 'spiritual son'). The scientific novelty of the work consists in the first experience of addressing the conceptualization of the blood relationship between mother and son in Russian linguistic culture. The main purpose of the article is to describe the signs of the con-ceptualization of consanguinity, namely, maternal-filial relationships in Russian linguoculture. Objectives of the article: 1. to identify the three fixed spheres of explication of conceptual signs of mother and son; 2. to iden-tify ways of objectification of the corresponding three levels of cognitive signs. Research methods and materi-al. The article uses a complex of methods of linguistic analysis: descriptive, interpretive, conceptual, the method of analyzing dictionary definitions. This complex allows to solving the tasks set by the authors of the article. The research material was taken from the National Corpus of the Russian Language (www.ruscorpora.ru). The cor-pus produces 11081 contexts (10075 for the word mother and 1006 for the word womb – the two main repre-sentatives of the macroconcept mother. For the main representative of the concept son – the word son – the corpus gives out 15,878 contexts. Conclusion. Actualization of mother and son conceptual signs occurs at three levels of perception of this sphere of life: 1. Mundane; 2. Divine (sacred); 3. Desacralized (depreciated, ironic).
PROFESSIONAL NEONOMINATIONS IN ENGLISH DISCOURSE
UDC: УДК 81`42:811.111
Section: PHILOLOGY
Authors: Veronika V. Katermina ; Natalia B. Shershneva;
The article deals with professional neo-nominations in the English discourse. The semantic, structural, and dis-cursive plans of this layer of vocabulary are analyzed. The meaning of such neologisms is transparent due to the nominative weight of their components. These units form an informational picture of the world and reflect the national and cultural characteristics of the world perception and the system of value relations. The emer-gence of new things is an essential property of any system, a consequence of its development, movement for-ward, an integral feature and evidence of its viability. The appearance of new words in the language system is a manifestation of this tendency and confirmation of the principles of its dynamism and openness. These units form an informational picture of the world and reflect the national and cultural characteristics of the world per-ception and the system of value relations. The unremitting attention of researchers to the problems of neology is due to the significant role of new words as a mirror of linguistic development which clearly reflects the adapta-tion of the language to the changing conditions of its functioning under the influence of linguistic and extralin-guistic factors. The authors pay special attention to the system of names of persons by profession and position which in any national language are in continuous movement and development: new areas of knowledge and activity appear – new designations appear for persons actively functioning in these areas. The article used such methods of scientific knowledge as literature analysis, generalization of experience, classification, and deduc-tion, as well as the method of contextual analysis and the descriptive method. The methodological basis was the work of leading Russian specialists in the field of neology, axiology, and onomastics. Methods of formation of new words denoting professions were established and described, patterns and causes of the activity of certain language processes at the present stage of language formation were revealed. The article concludes about the role of the new vocabulary as an indicator of the display of value orientations of society at the present stage of its development.
EUPHEMISMS IN MODERN MANIPULATIVE MEDIA DISCOURSE
UDC: УДК 800
Section: PHILOLOGY
Authors: Margarita D. Lagutkina; Irina S. Karabulatova;
Introduction. In the modern Russian academic discourse of studying the language of the mass media, euphe-misms are considered as a stylistic means or a pragmatic function. However, to this day, the study of this phe-nomenon in the Russian language is only an area that is not sufficiently developed. The analysis of euphemisms as openings and methods of influence in the manipulative discourse of the media is relevant. Purpose. The arti-cle is devoted to the study of the phenomena of euphemisms in the modern manipulative discourse of the media and clarification of the definition, functions and understanding of social pragmatists in the use of these linguis-tic forms in mass communications. Materials and methods. The paper provides the analysis of a number of common ideas about euphemisms and offers its own view of this phenomenon in the modern manipulative me-dia discourse. This study uses the historical method, comparison and criticism of academic sources, a socio-pragmatic functional view of the linguistic possibilities of their functions in the life of society. Results, discus-sion. Euphemisms are considered as one of the most effective methods for manipulation and direct impact on the consciousness of society in modern media. Euphemization is closely related to the psychological needs of a person and is analyzed at three levels: archetypal, personal and socio-pragmatic. Given the complex internal semantic and etymological structure of euphemisms, which are extremely widely used in the practice of mass communication, it is relevant to consider this linguistic and stylistic means in the manipulative aspect of news or political discourse. Conclusion. Erroneous identification of euphemisms with rare terms and other languages that do not coincide with them in their functions are excluded.
FRONT-LINE LYRICAL POETRY OF THE UDMURT POET F. G. KEDROV
UDC: УДК 821.511.131-14”1941/1945”.09(045)
Section: PHILOLOGY
Authors: Elena N. Petrova;
Introduction. The article discusses the front-line poetry of the famous Udmurt poet and writer Philip Grigorievich Kedrov (1909–1944). The formation of the main ideological and poetic principles of F. Kedrov took place in the “fiery forties”, which determined the philosophical, moral, psychological, artistic and aesthet-ic features and the value foundations of his poems. The legacy of the writer, who lived a short but bright life, has stood the test of time and entered the “golden fund” of the Udmurt literature. Unfortunately, today there is a de-cline in readers’ interest in the works of front-line writers. The relevance of the research is due to the objective scientific need for a modern interpretation of F. Kedrov’s front-line poetry which is in demand as a value guide-line and the foundation of the spiritual life of the people. The purpose of the research is to study the ideologi-cal and artistic originality of the front-line lyrical poetry of F. Kedrov and its place in the history of Udmurt lit-erature. Materials and research methods. The subject of the study is the poem of F. Kedrov, written during the Great Patriotic War on the front line (in a combat situation), marked for the publication as “active army”. The study uses biographical, historical-literary, problem-aesthetic methods of material analysis. Research result, discussion. Udmurt literature of the period of the Great Patriotic War is among the most poorly studied areas of Udmurt literary studies. Meanwhile, the works of this period reflect the real history of the people at the turning point of the country’s existence. As a result of the study, on the example of F. Kedrov’s works, it is demonstrated that the Udmurt authors who took part in the Great Patriotic War depicted the events of the war based on their personal impressions. They reflected the feelings of patriotism and unity of people of different nationalities dur-ing the years of the most difficult ordeals. Conclusion. The leading motifs of F. Kedrov’s front-line poetry in-clude the ideas of patriotism and internationalism, yearning for home, commitment to motherland, the dream of victory, thoughts about the future fate of the people. Not all the manuscripts of F. Kedrov of the period of the Great Patriotic War have been found, currently the author of the article works to identify other works of F. Kedrov. The article discusses a number of poems of F. Kedrov, which have not yet been introduced into scien-tific circulation.
MYTHS ABOUT MEDICAL ERRORS: LINGUISTIC AND AXIOLOGICAL ASPECTS
UDC: УДК 81’42+81’373.2
Section: PHILOLOGY
Authors: Elena S. Stepanova;
This study is devoted to the problem of the representation of the myth about medical errors, which are associat-ed with the subjectivity of moral and ethical judgments and the lack of mechanisms to explain the emerging problems in treatment. The purpose of the study is to describe the value and worldview representations about medical errors that exist in our linguocultural society. The stated goal defines the objectives of the research: to describe the typology of the myth about medical errors; analyze linguistic ways of the representation of the myth about medical errors. The methodology of the research is based on the works of foreign and Russian sci-entists in the field of study of the notions “myth” and “medical error”. The definitions of the notions “medical myth” and “medical error” are given. A medical myth is understood as a form of expression, actualization of the results of the emotional and axiological mastering of the world, the combination of material and spiritual condi-tions of a doctor’s activity in one of the sign systems. A medical error is determined as a failure to perform planned actions aimed at achieving a specific goal of therapy or the wrong choice of a treatment method. The popular science work “When We Do Harm: A Doctor Confronts Medical Error” by Danielle Ofri, which analyzes the causes of medical errors and the impact, which they provide on patients, their families, doctors, nurses and other caregivers served as the material for the research. The priority research methods of the myth about medi-cal errors are the cultural analysis, the descriptive and analytical contextual method and the method of contin-uous sampling. It is concluded that the myth about medical errors embodies a significant value for the repre-sentatives of the linguoculture and has an axiological component. The results of the study allowed us to propose a typology of myth about medical errors, which systematizes the myths about medical errors that determine the value attitude of a doctor to various components of medical activity. The analysis shows that the myth about medical errors has an axiological component and is represented by linguistic means such as implicit compara-tive constructions, metaphorical models and precedent phenomena.
LANGUAGE POLICY IMPLEMENTATION IN TATARSTAN: MULTILINGUALISM AND LANGUAGE EDUCATION
UDC: УДК 373.5.016:811.161.1’367
Section: PHILOLOGY
Authors: Alsu M. Tuktamyshova;
Introduction. The article reveals language policy implementation processes, taking into account the relevance of developing multilingual skills and paying special attention to the teaching of the state (Russian language), na-tional (Tatar language), as well as foreign (English) language. The purpose of this article is to analyze how lan-guage policy implementation impacts the education of indigenous peoples / minorities in the Republic of Ta-tarstan (RT). Issues related to language policy are very multifaceted and require analysis from the point of view of law, linguistics, and pedagogy, as well as the interaction of state bodies with its stakeholders. Materials and methods. The methods include a whole series of legislative acts regulating the implementation of language pol-icy in Russia and the Republic of Tatarstan. It pays a special attention to the State Program for the preservation, study and development of the state languages of the RT and other languages in the RT (State Program). The re-sults of the analysis and discussion describe the state of the language policy in the region, that is, its scale and size, the laws influencing the language policy in the field of education. Secondly, based on the experience of implementing language policy in other regions and countries, a comparative analysis is proposed using the ex-ample of the State Program. Using the theory of Professor B. Spolsky, the author conducts a general analysis of the language policy in the region. Also, following the guidelines for the preservation of languages of L. A. Gre-noble and L. J. Whaley, this article studies the effectiveness of implementation of the State Program. In conclu-sion, proposals are prepared for the implementation of the language policy in the Republic of Tatarstan and oth-er multilingual societies.
ON THE ISSUE OF FUNCTIONING OF CONJUNCTION SHUYSA IN THE UDMURT LANGUAGE
UDC: УДК 811.511.131
Section: PHILOLOGY
Authors: Alexandra F. Utkina;
Introduction. Complex sentences in the Udmurt language are characterized by the polyfunctionality of many conjunctions and connective words. Nowadays for the conjunction shuysa ‘what’ in Udmurt linguistics only its explanatory function is traditionally distinguished. Meanwhile, the specified token can have a set of additional meanings. The purpose of the article is to reveal the functionality of the conjunction shuysa in the modern Ud-murt language. Materials and methods. The research was carried out on the analysis of examples from literary and folklore texts included in the base of the National Corpus of the Udmurt language. The main research methods were the method of continuous sampling, contextual analysis and the descriptive method. Research results, discussion. The article systematizes the scientific works of domestic and foreign researchers devoted to the study of Udmurt conjunctions. The conducted research made it possible to concretize and clarify the func-tions of the conjunction shuysa ‘what’. It is noted that in the system of the modern Udmurt language, the con-junction of shuysa ‘what’ is multifunctional. Conclusion. Based on the analysis of the National Corpus of the Udmurt language, it was revealed that the multifunctional and postpositive conjunction shuysa ‘what’ in the texts of Udmurt fiction is used in subordinate explanatory, determinative, target and causal. The frequency of use of each of these semantic meanings is different. Most of the complex sentences with the conjunction under study arose on the basis of constructions with direct speech, in which shuysa closes the syntactic unity, which is someone else’s speech. Explanatory complex sentences of the Udmurt language can be transformed into a sim-ple sentence with a non-postpositive verbal clause or with a postpositive verbal clause.
ACTUALIZATION OF CONCEPTUAL SIGNS OF THE EDUCATOR CONCEPT IN THE DICTIONARIES OF SYNONYMS
UDC: УДК 81-114
Section: PHILOLOGY
Authors: Marina G. Iurchenko;
Introduction. Even though the concepts of pedagogical discourse attract the attention of many researchers, the academic literature contains next to no works on the conceptual signs of the educator concept, which explains the research novelty of the presented work. The aim of this article: to identify and describe the conceptual signs of the educator concept of pedagogical discourse in the dictionaries of synonyms. Materials and methods. This article is based on the methodology of the St. Petersburg–Kemerovo school, which includes a step-by-step study of the concept structure. The following methods of linguistic analysis are used: descriptive, for analyzing lin-guistic facts; conceptual, to identify the features that form the structure of the concept, and interpretive. The discursive material of the Russian National Corpus was used as illustrative data. Dictionaries of synonyms were taken to determine the conceptual signs of the educator concept. Research results, discussion. The study of the dictionaries of synonyms has found 36 conceptual signs of the educator concept. A part of these signs was found during the previous stages of research. The second part of the conceptual signs is new; it includes signs not found in previously analyzed dictionaries. Conclusion. As the analysis of the linguistic material shows, not all the conceptual signs of the educator concept indicated in the dictionaries of synonyms are rele-vant for the modern Russian language. One part of the conceptual signs of foreign-language (foreign-cultural) origin is not found in the contexts with words representing the concept under study. These conceptual signs are relevant, but the examples objectifying them are few. The other part of foreign-cultural conceptual signs is actu-alized in the contexts with the words-representatives of the studied concept.
PHILOLOGY IN THE SYSTEM OF MODERN HUMANITARIAN KNOWLEDGE
UDC:
Section: THE MAIN DIRECTIONS OF MASTER'S DEGREE OF THE MARI STATE UNIVERSITY
Authors:
Mari State University continues to train specialists in the direction of 45.04.01 Philology (profile “Philology in the system of modern humanitarian knowledge”). In 2021−2022, eight people are completing their education in this field of training. Among them are graduates of the direction 44.03.05 Pedagogical education (profile “Russian language and literature”) and 42.03.02 Journalism (profile “Journalism and advertising”). Within two years, students are to master the skills to independently analyze the systems of language, folklore and literature; to evaluate, refer, design and promote the results of their own scientific activities; to edit scientific publications; to jointly develop projects in the field of philology, etc. In accordance with the stated direction of training, the problems of modern philology are in the focus of the undergraduates: the world classical heritage and the mod-ern world,interaction in the space of modern culture of its various types, the peculiarities of the functioning of various layers ofthe Russian language and their significance, and more. Students master modern approaches to the study of texts of various types, the methodology of analyzing the most complex phenomena of modern cul-ture, such as postmodern texts, network literature, narratives of computer games and the like. Students also get the opportunity to test their knowledge in the process of internship on the basis of the MarSU laboratory of ana-lytical philology: they get acquainted with the main directions of research activities of the key university of the Republic of Mari El and with the experience of its leading specialists; together with scientific supervisors they develop projects related to the problems of final qualifying works. At the same time, students set really ambi-tious tasks for themselves: to show what functions computer games perform in modern society and in what as-pect they can be studied by philologists; what a visual game is and whether it can be considered an independent genre of online literature or not; how to update the texts of the works of “forgotten” authors and pay attention to new names; if the deconstruction of the text contributes to the success of communication. They try to answer the question whether provincial theaters are able to respond to the requests of modern viewers; whether postmodern author's strategies will gain a foothold in the arsenal of world and domestic literature, etc. Once again, the “Vestnik of the Mari State University” introduces readers to the concepts of final qualifying works by under-graduate philologists.
LANGUAGE EDUCATION IN THE FIELD OF RUSSIAN LANGUAGE AND RUSSIAN LITERATURE
UDC:
Section: THE MAIN DIRECTIONS OF MASTER'S DEGREE OF THE MARI STATE UNIVERSITY
Authors:
LANGUAGE EDUCATION IN THE FIELD OF RUSSIAN LANGUAGE AND RUSSIAN LITERATURE
REVIEW OF THE TEACHING AID: ZOLOTOVA T. A., PLOTNIKOVA E. A., EFIMOVA N. I. FOLKLORE TRADITIONS IN THE RUSSIAN CULTURE OF THE XX−XXI CENTURIES
UDC:
Section: REVIEWS
Authors: Vyacheslav A. Pozdeyev;
Познавательное, воспитательное, эстетиче-ское значение фольклора в современной куль-туре достаточно велико и требует осмысления и изучения. В учебно-методическом пособии «Традиции фольклора в отечественной культу-ре ХХ−ХХI веков», подготовленном профессо-ром Т. А. Золотовой, доцентами Е. А. Плотниковой, Н. И. Ефимовой, рассмат-риваются актуальные проблемы современной культурологии и фольклористики, а точнее – влияние народного творчества на разные ас-пекты профессиональной культуры в ХХ−ХХI веках. Пособие построено так, что в нем как для студентов, так и для преподавателей открыва-ется целый ряд исследований, которые состав-ляют теоретическую основу для дальнейшего изучения и исследования феномена фолькло-ризма кинематографии, литературы, а также современных текстов молодежной субкультуры. Необходимо отметить, что проблема исполь-зования традиций фольклора в литературе, ки-нематографе и молодежной культуре, а также в пространстве современного города не так ча-сто привлекала внимание исследователей; еще в меньшей степени ее составляющие были освещены в учебниках и методических посо-биях. Именно поэтому выход этой книги закры-вает большую лакуну в области методики пре-подавания тради¬ционной культуры в вузах и других учебных заведениях. Важно отметить, что все разделы пособия построены по одному рациональному принци-пу: вводная статья по определенной теме, спи-сок рекомендуемой литературы и разнообраз-ные задания, которые помогут обучающимся понять сущность феномена фольклоризма, его типы, причины и особенности обращения к фольклору представителей различных областей современной культуры. Авторы предлагают и оригинальную программу курса «Фольклор и современная культура», которая, несомненно, будет востребована преподавателями, студен-тами и магистрантами. Авторы пособия начинают с фольклоризма в кинематографии. Эта проблема осмыслялась прежде всего киноведами, а не исследователя-ми традиционной культуры. Авторы приводят целый ряд фамилий известных киноведов, за-нимавшихся изучением этой проблемы: Н. М. Зоркая, М. И. Ту¬ро¬вская, Н. Ю. Спут-ницкая, В. И. Фомин, Н. А. Хренов; комменти-руют наиболее интересные положения их ра-бот, показывают значимость обращения кино-ведов к фольклористическим трудам, в частно-сти В. Я. Проппа, а также дают ссылки на эти работы. Органичен в этот разделе и материал, свя-занный с анализом творчества известных ре-жиссеров-постановщиков сказок и фольклор-ных произведений: А. А. Роу, А. Л. Птушко, С. М. Овча¬рова. Их киносказки вошли в «золо-той» фонд советского кино, поэтому знаком-ство и разбор сценариев, режиссерских ходов, актерской игры позволяет студентам, маги-странтам, аспирантам понять художественный замысел режиссеров и особенности его реализации. Привлекают внимание и методические раз-работки традиций в современных отечествен-ных фильмах жанра фэнтези. Этот жанр мало исследован, тем более в связи с традиционной культурой и фольклором. Авторы пособия при-водят мнения ряда теоретиков кино, в частно-сти Н. Ю. Спутницкой, которые высказывают критические замечания постановщикам филь-мов-фэнтези в использовании магии и нацио-нальных сказочных традиций, а также выска-зывают свою оригинальную точку зрения по этим вопросам. Второй раздел пособия раскрывает фольк-лоризм литературы, в частности традиции сказки у многих современных писателей. Ав-торы отмечают, что «к сказке обращаются представители как элитарной (в отечественной традиции, например, Татьяна Толстая и Люд-мила Петрушевская и др.), так и мидл-литературы». Именно поэтому в пособии, по-мимо творчества Л. Пет¬рушевской, рассматри-ваются и произведения таких уже известных литераторов, как А. Га¬ниева, Е. Бабушкин, Д. Ахметшин. В сказках Л. Петрушевской, с одной сторо-ны, авторы отмечают полную реализацию «пропповской модели волшебной сказки», а с другой – раскрывается «образ детства». Так Л. Пет¬рушевская «мастерски прописывает внутренний мир ребенка», поэтому ее сказки, как бы рассказанные самими детьми, по мне-нию авторов, и делают их «настоящими». В пособии также анализируется сборник А. Ганиевой «Странные сказки». Созданные писательницей сюжеты воспроизводят совре-менную российскую действительность, но в то же время используют фольклорные модели и мотивы. Так же, как у Л. Петрушевской, у А. Га¬ниевой, главные герои сказок – дети, это усиливает восприятие «сказочности, чудесно-сти». Авторы пособия отмечают оригиналь-ность находок А. Ганиевой в заглавиях и подза-головках сказок. В них часто обозначается не-кий нравственный императив, а еще писатель-ница дает краткие авторские ремарки с дет-ским рисунком. Что касается сказок Е. Бабушкина, то в них, считают авторы пособия, часто изображается «два мира: реальный и ирреальный (волшеб-ный)». Интересно то, как сказочник использует «низкого героя», сказочные формулы и тому подобное. Отмечено, что Е. Бабушкин, один из немногих в нашей литературе, кто создает такие ситуации в сказках, когда «герои не ре-шают стоящих перед ними задач и не побеж-дают противников». Как и Е. Бабушкин, Д. Ахметшин – один из лауреатов премии «Дебют», соединяет в своих сказках элементы сказочной реальности и со-временную действительность. Авторы пособия анализируют его цикл «Короткие сказки». Для данного автора, по наблюдениям авторов, ха-рак¬терны поиски в жанре литературной сказки, подчеркнутый интерес к мистической стороне, использование мотивов сказок разных народов. Третий раздел пособия «Фольклор и моло-дежная культура» как бы объединяет и разви-вает на новом витке два предыдущих раздела. В нем рассматривается визуальная и текстовая молодежная культура, в которой «самодеятель-ные тексты», написанные по произведениям известных писателей («фанфики», «фан-фикшн»), «иллюстрируются» не только изоб-ражением, но вербальным оформлением. Авто-ры подчеркивают, что «кадры» из некоторых популярных молодежных фильмов дополняют-ся различными словесными клише. Важным выводом является то, что авторы пособия рас-крывают жанр мема как феномен современного фольклора, который, «во-первых, отвечает кри-териям фольклора, во-вторых, существует в нынешнем временном пласте, создается вслед актуальному литературному и кинематографи-ческому источнику и при помощи цифровых технологий. Важно и то, что мемы представля-ют собой новые формы бытования для тради-ционных фольклорных жанров, например, для анекдота, поскольку некоторые многочастные их формы вполне могут быть заменены нарра-тивом со смешной и неожиданной концовкой. Также мемы и фанфикшн призваны закреплять и транслировать ценности создающей их суб-культуры или сообщества. Хочется отметить, что авторы пособия как бы «закольцовывают» проблему визуально-тексто¬вого сказочного творчества ХХ−ХХI ве-ков. Настоящий этап в развитии молодежной интернет-культуры продолжает и развивает сказочные (волшебные) традиции прежних лет. Новые веяния, новые технологии требуют но-вых осмыслений моделей сказок, новых прие-мов, художественных открытий. Такие пробле-мы поможет решить программа курса «Фольк-лор и современная культура», которую предла-гают авторы книги. Курс рассчитан на 32 ака-демических часа. Содержательная сторона курса достаточно основательно проработана, выделены как основные теоретические поло-жения, так и новые современные аспекты. Например, темы «Фольклор и кинематограф», «Молодежная культура и фольклор», «Фольк-лор в пространстве современного города: типы фольклорно-этнографических памятников и музеев». В пособии авторы приводят примеры методических приемов анализа разных фольк-лорных и литературных жанров, сопоставления произведений, приемов анализа различных текстов современной культуры. В пособии, таким образом, задача подготов-ки широко эрудированного человека, специа-листа-филолога сочетается с задачей воспита-тельной, пособие расширяет горизонты чело-века, обладающего творческим мышлением.