- VESTNIK 3 (51) 2023
- Date publication on the site:
- 2023-09-28 14:44:31
- Full journal in PDF:
Content all 19
Pedagogical integration as a means of implementing a meta-subject approach
Authors: Svetlana A. Arefeva; Olesya V. Arefeva; Galina N. Shvetsova;
The purpose of this article is to consider the problem of pedagogical integration as a means of implementing a meta-subject approach in the process of teaching Russian to schoolchildren. The introduction reveals the goals and objectives of pedagogical integration to increase the cognitive activity of schoolchildren and the formation of systemic knowledge about the world around them when teaching Russian at school. The goals set are realized in the process of solving the following tasks: studying and describing the features of organizing and conducting an integrated lesson of the Russian language and mathematics as a means of implementing a meta-subject approach. The methods of scientific research that realize the set goal are theoretical analysis, survey, observation, pedagogical experiment. The main part offers materials and methods for drawing up a plan of an integrated lesson of the Russian language, justifies the effectiveness of using pedagogical integration as a means of implementing a meta-subject approach; the concepts of “pedagogical integration”, “integrated lesson”, “meta-subject approach”, “meta-subject concepts” are considered; the interdisciplinary connections of the Russian language and mathematics are analyzed and their content is revealed in the structure of an integrated lesson of the Russian language and mathematics based on the material of the study of numerals. The results of the research are reflected in the practice of working with students of the secondary school and the Pedagogical Institute of the Mari State University, in the authors’ publications and presentations at All-Russian and international conferences. The conclusion contains conclusions about the expediency of organizing and conducting an integrated lesson of the Russian language and mathematics for the purpose of forming students’ meta-subject knowledge.
Ethnodesign as a means of students’ artistic taste development
Authors: Natalya G. Arzamastseva; Zinaida Yu. Maksimova;
The relevance of the problem under study is due to the active introduction of the ethnic component into modern education. The importance of training competitive creative teachers of professional training in the field of design and ethnodesign, with a developed artistic taste, having a broad understanding of the diversity of cultures in society, positioning a positive attitude towards various ethnic traditions in the conditions of the Russian multinational state, is emphasized. The analysis of approaches to the definition of the concept of “artistic taste” is carried out. Its structural components (cognitive, emotional, motivational) and criteria for the development of artistic taste from the standpoint of ethnodesign are considered. The main pedagogical conditions necessary for the successful development of students’ artistic taste by means of ethnodesign are described. The conclusion is made on the implementation of the listed pedagogical conditions for the formation of students’ artistic taste by means of ethnodesign. The results of the study can be useful for practical application and further theoretical research for teachers of professional design education. The purpose of this article is to substantiate the expediency of using the means of ethnodesign in the development of the artistic taste of students. Materials and methods. Theoretical analysis, generalization of literature on the research problem, questioning.
The Foucault pendulum of the Mari State University: history of creation, technical features, experience of working with the pendulum of schoolchildren and students
Authors: Valery A. Belyanin;
Introduction. In the historical aspect, the features of the design, manufacture, installation and debugging of the Foucault pendulum of the Mari State University, which is one of the largest Foucault pendulums in Russia, are considered. The work on the modernization and improvement of the design of the pendulum over the years of its existence as an educational physical instrument is analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the possibilities of using the pendulum by schoolchildren and students in the study of physics. The main purpose of the article is to analyze the possibilities of modernizing and improving the design of the Foucault pendulum of the Mari University as an educational physical device, designating the directions for using the pendulum in the educational process when studying physics by schoolchildren and students. The pendulum with its movement clearly demonstrates the fact of the daily rotation of the Earth and allows schoolchildren and students to perform physical experiments and laboratory work on the section “Mechanical oscillations” of general and experimental physics. Materials and methods. Methods of comparative analysis of literary sources were used, considering the operation of Foucault pendulums installed both in our country and abroad, preliminary experiments were carried out, and the technology of installing the pendulum was perfected. Based on the discussion and comparative analysis of the operation of various pendulums, it was concluded that the quality of the pendulum operation depends on the operation of its main components, such as the ball, the ball suspension and the pendulum oscillation plane stabilization systems. The operating experience of the Foucault pendulum of the Mari University showed that it is an open physical device, the process of improvement of which has not yet been completed. The article discusses the improvements made to the design of the pendulum and some devices that make its work better and more convenient for using the pendulum for its intended purpose as a device that allows organizing the educational process of studying physics by schoolchildren and students at a modern level. In particular, a Sharon ring was installed and tested on the pendulum, which stabilizes the plane of oscillations of the pendulum, an electromagnetic system for compensating energy losses and a system for recording pendulum oscillations on paper. Approaches to setting laboratory work on a pendulum for schools and universities are considered.
Increasing the efficiency of training fire-fighting gas and smoke protectors in higher educational institutions of the Emergency Control Ministry of Russia by means of complex practice-oriented disciplines
Authors: Michael V. Bondarenko; Alexander V. Kharitonov;
Introduction. The changes taking place in recent years in the system of education and training of specialists of the Federal Fire Service of the Emergency Control Ministry (EMERCOM) of Russia, the improvement of the technical equipment of the bodies and services of EMERCOM of Russia, increase the professional requirements for graduates of higher educational institutions that train specialists in the specialty “Fire safety”. The success of the development and improvement of the training of firefighters, including in the field of the gas and smoke protection service (hereinafter ‒ GSPS), as a structural part of the fire protection, largely depends on them ‒ potential and current heads of management bodies and departments of the country’s most mobile service. The purpose of the research is the determination of ways of further development of the discipline “Training of a gas and smoke protector” in the structure of training specialists in the field of fire extinguishing. Materials and methods. In this work, the methods of analyzing the guiding methodological documents in the field of pedagogy and fire safety, special literature that allows to reveal the potential of the development of the discipline in question, a comparative analysis of previous and current guiding documents on the organization of the educational process in the specialty “Fire safety” were used. Research results, discussion. The results of a long-term study devoted to the formation and development of an academic discipline related to the training of the elite of fire protection are presented. Significant moments of the course are determined. New results have been obtained, consisting in identifying the relationship between the educational process management system and the practice-oriented education system in the field of fire safety, by means of complex practice-oriented disciplines. Conclusion. Trends in the development of modern vocational education in problem-oriented structures, which undoubtedly include fire protection, pose the task of finding ways to develop specialized, basic disciplines, taking into account the challenges of the time, for the researcher.
Formation of reading literacy in History lessons
Authors: Dmitry V. Buyarov; Yana A. Kiseleva;
Introduction. The article discusses the ways of forming reading literacy in History lessons, methods, techniques, forms of implementation of this direction of pedagogical activity. The purpose of the article is to analize the concept of “reading literacy”, to characterize the ways of developing reading literacy in History lessons, to determine the importance of acquiring reading skills by students for their future life. The materials and methods were normative legal acts in the field of education, teaching materials on history, research of domestic methodologists. The research methodology was based on a combination of various ways of organizing students' educational activities, studying the history of the problem, analyzing and generalizing advanced pedagogical experience in the context of the formation of reading literacy skills. General scientific and special methods were used in the study of this topic. In the course of the work, the study and analysis of sources and literature on the presented problem were carried out, the historical and typological method was used in the context of the issue under consideration, the design of the research results was organized in accordance with the principles of consistency, objectivity. Research results, discussions. In the course of the research, the main typologies of texts within the framework of the History course, the structure of reading literacy were identified, various options were analyzed and specific examples of tasks aimed at the formation of reading skills, methods for the development of reading literacy among students were tested, the use of “block clusters” in the context of historical education was tested. Conclusion. The conclusion is made about the importance of the formation of reading literacy among students as one of the universal competencies for solving problems in future life. Separately, attention is focused on the possibility of using “block clusters” in the framework of the development of reading literacy in History lessons, positive characteristic features of this method of organizing pedagogical activity are noted: universality, orderliness, visibility, structurality and so on.
Bachelor and specialist students’ readiness for professional activity: comparative pilot study
Authors: Larisa V. Lezhnina; Svetlana A. Arefeva;
Introduction. The exit of the Russian education system from the Bologna format has intensified the discussions of scientists and practitioners about the directions of its further development. There is an obvious social demand for the development of such a model of higher education, the result of which will be a genuine readiness of university graduates for professional activities. This actualizes the problem of studying the advantages and disadvantages of single-level (Specialist’s) and multilevel (Bachelor's/Master's/Postgraduate studies) systems of domestic higher education. The purpose of the research is to study the features of readiness for professional activity of graduate students (on the example of psychologists), trained in different-level systems of higher education. Materials and methods. An empirical pilot study was carried out on the basis of a theoretical analysis of the criteria for readiness for professional activity of undergraduate psychology students in comparison with the readiness indicators of psychology graduates (Specialist’s), collected more than 10 years ago. The data were collected using test-questionnaire “Career Anchors” (E. Schein), the method of studying the motivation of professional activity (K. Zamfir, A.A. Rean), the questionnaire of the level of subjective control (E. F. Bazhin, E. A. Golynkina, A. M. Etkind), the author’s questionnaire of the formation of psychologist’s competencies. Statistical methods (Pearson’s χ2 criterion, Mann-Whitney U-criterion) were used to check the reliability of data differences. Results, discussion. The general and specific features in readiness for professional activity in psychology students who studied in different-level systems of higher education have been established. The general feature is the dominance of internal professional motivation and internalized type of subjective control. The specific features are the optimal type of professional orientation in graduates of Specialist’s and the more developed profile of preparedness (competencies) in graduates of Bachelor's. Conclusion: the data obtained in the course of the study form the basis for the recommendation to pay special attention to the professional and personal development of students when developing projects of “post-Bologna” modernization of the domestic education system.
Formation of teachers’ readiness for the development of inventive thinking of younger schoolchildren by means of TRIZ-technologies
Authors: Elena V. Maltseva; Elena V. Kondratenko; Galina N. Shvetsova;
Introduction. Currently, the implementation of TRIZ-technologies in primary school is considered as a significant condition for the development of inventive thinking in younger schoolchildren. The purpose of the study is to determine the content and forms of training primary school teachers for the development of inventive thinking of younger schoolchildren by means of TRIZ-technologies. Materials and methods. The study was carried out as part of the activities of the federal innovation platform “Approbation and implementation of a model for advanced training of teachers for the development of inventive thinking of younger schoolchildren by means of an innovative educational and laboratory complex on TRIZ-technologies in the educational space of schools”. In the course of the study, methods of theoretical analysis, modeling, testing, polling, observation, and expert assessment were used. Research results, discussion. The significance of TRIZ-education for the development of inventive thinking of younger schoolchildren is determined, the main characteristics inherent in this type of thinking are revealed. The concept of readiness of a primary school teacher for the development of research skills, inventive thinking of younger schoolchildren by means of TRIZ-technologies is concretized. The structure and content of the additional professional advanced training program “Experimental activities of junior schoolchildren based on TRIZ” are presented, and the main approaches to its implementation are determined. Conclusion. The practical significance of the study, the prospects for its further development are determined. The main directions of the development of innovative activities related to the preparation of primary school teachers for professional activities in the conditions of TRIZ education are specified.
Methodology of application of the AutoCAD computer-aided design system for education of students of a polytechnic college
Authors: Zariya F. Sattarova; Linar G. Akhmetov;
Introduction. The article emphasizes the growing role of the use of computer-aided design systems in response to scientific and technological progress, and as a result, the requirements for the qualifications and level of professional training of graduates of polytechnic colleges. The purpose of the study is to identify the features and most effective methods of using the AutoCAD computer-aided design system in the process of professional training of students of a polytechnic college. Materials and methods. Along with the general didactic theory of teaching and the theory of developmental teaching in activity development, the theory of informatization of professional education, which analyzes the psychological, pedagogical and methodological problems of informatization of the educational environment, reveals the features of the formation of professionalism of future specialists using a didactic system that uses special-purpose applied software products, served as research methods and materials To solve the tasks set, the following research methods were used: analysis of psychological and pedagogical, methodological special literature and electronic information resources on the research problem; analysis of the AutoCAD software complex for educational and practical purposes. Research results, discussions. Among CAD systems, AutoCAD is singled out as the most used program by employers. Accordingly, mastering the skills of working in it is most relevant and appropriate for students. The article outlines the problem of a shortage of qualified engineering personnel who competently organize work with design documentation and successfully apply skills in CAD systems, in particular in the AutoCAD. This problem can be solved by involving professional educational institutions of a technical orientation. To do this, the article considers the stages of formation of skills in AutoCAD among students of the polytechnic college, methods of effective learning, planned results, application methods and features of working in the AutoCAD system.
Digital assistant in the educational process: results of a student survey
Authors: Svetlana N. Fedorova; Nataliya D. Golikova;
Introduction. The article examines the feasibility of developing and implementing a digital assistant for students of higher education institutions, which can assist them in the process of learning, professional formation and development, structuring the information obtained in the most convenient form. The modern world can be described as an “endless flow of information” which is sometimes impossible to keep up with and keep track of. Over the last few years 90 % of all the available information in the world has been created and at the moment the volume of existing information is about 97 zettabytes (1 zettabyte = 1 trillion gigabytes). So how can a modern student navigate this flow of information? In our opinion, specialized digital assistants can help. The purpose of the study is to identify the feasibility of developing and implementing a digital assistant for students of higher education institutions. Materials and methods of research. The material of the study was the experience of domestic and foreign authors on the use of digital technology in the educational process. The main methods were theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature on the topic of research, method of generalization, questioning. Students of the Mari State University (Yoshkar-Ola, Russia) took part in the study. Research results, discussion. The results obtained show the students’ interest in the digital assistant, which they need to a greater extent in their learning activities. The respondents would like to have such an assistant in the form of a mobile application, which could quickly and accurately search for information, control the process of assignment completion, remind about deadlines and so on. Conclusion. Thus, modern students are interested in a digital assistant, which will help them to cope successfully with academic tasks and effectively plan their personal time.
The system of continuing pedagogical education at the beginning of the XXI century
Authors: Galina N. Shvetsova; Maya N. Shvetsova; Elena V. Kondratenko;
Introduction. The article considers continuing education as one of the social systems focused on “lifelong learning”. The relevance of the study of this concept is emphasized. The historical roots of the appearance of the term “continuing education” are shown. The contradictions that exist today in science regarding continuing education at the level of studying public administration, at the level of scientific theory, scientific methodology are outlined. The purpose of the study is to reveal the essence of continuing education and determine its main characteristics. Materials and methods. Four different approaches to continuing pedagogical education are defined: the first assumes the unity of formal (institutional) education with informal (additional); the second is supplemented by the condition of adaptability of the education system to the level of training; the third assumes that continuing education solves, first of all, the problem of the purpose of education; the fourth ‒ the unity of continuing pedagogical education is central with the principle of continuity. The system ‒ structural approach is considered as the basis for the analysis of continuing education. Continuing education (pedagogical system) is a social phenomenon that is changing due to transformations in society, the educational system, as a set of all educational institutions (education system), is a constant in the development of society. The article substantiates that the system consists of two parts: internal and external. Internal ‒ the immediate environment of the individual (educational environment) and the macroenvironment (educational space). After analyzing the “system” as a scientific phenomenon, the article states that continuing education becomes a condition for the development of society. The trends of such development are described and determined from the point of view of general and vocational education. It is shown that continuing education can also be correlated with teacher training ‒ “continuing pedagogical education”. In conclusion, the characteristics of continuing pedagogical education at the stage of the beginning of the XXI century are listed.
The concept of onapu ‘sacred / prayer tree’ in the Mari linguistic culture
Authors: Lyubov A. Abukaeva;
Introduction. In the Mari religious picture of the world, the concept of onapu ‘sacred / prayer tree’ is one of the basic concepts and a significant figurative symbol of national culture, establishing a connection between the material and spiritual world. The purpose of the work is a linguoculturological analysis of the Mari religious concept of onapu ‘sacred / prayer tree’. Research materials and methods. The texts of prayers, as well as descriptions of rites from various sources, are primarily involved as objects of analysis of the concept. The descriptive method, elements of the comparative-historical method, linguoculturological and contextual analysis were used in the work. Research results, discussions. In the sacred space of the prayer grove, the sacred tree serves as a reference point that determines the location of other objects and worshippers, orientation during ritual actions. Deciduous trees such as birch, oak but more often linden are chosen for prayers in honor of the gods. According to the religious views of the Mari, onapu, with the help of the gods, directs the will of Tӱnya Yumo ‘God of the Universe’ to the earth. One of the iconic functions of onapu is the direct place of the temporary stay of the gods in the sacred grove during prayer. Another function of onapu is related to the meaning of the altar. Gifts and testimonies of the gifts brought are placed directly on the sacred tree or next to it on the sacrificial table. Conclusion. The symbolically significant functions of onapu include maintaining the connection between the earthly and heavenly, human and divine, ensuring the inextricable connection of God, deities, clergy and worshipers, uniting believers, strengthening them in faith, as a result, increasing blessings, happiness and prosperity, ensuring peace and prosperity, as well as abundance, fertility and fecundity.
The multifunctionality of German deverbatives in the context of intracategorial syncretism
Authors: Irina V. Arkhipova;
Introduction. In this paper, the question of the taxis polyfunctionality of German deverbatives, which are part of prepositional constructions, is considered. The purpose of this work is to determine the functional status of deverbatives and describe the taxis functions of deverbatives that they implement when combined with various polysemic prepositions of adverbial semantics. Materials and methods. The research material was German utterances with deverbatives with polysemic circumstantial prepositions bei, unter, mit, durch, obtained by targeted search from the electronic database of the Leipzig National Corpus. In the course of the study, hypothetical-deductive, inductive, descriptive, contextual and other methods were used. Research results. The study found that the functional status of German deverbatives is determined by their immediate contextual environment, i.e. compatibility with one or another polysemic preposition of adverbial semantics (temporal, conditional, instrumental, etc.). Their polyfunctionality implies a variety of implemented taxis functions and is associated with the phenomenon of taxis syncretism. Taxis syncretism is due to the heterogeneous semantics of the polysemic prepositions bei, unter, mit, durch, which act as specific taxis markers of simultaneity. The considered German deverbatives in a certain syntagmatic context act as actualizers of primary-taxis and second-taxis categorial meanings of simultaneity. Conclusion. When used with polysemic prepositions bei, unter, mit, durch in temporal, modal, instrumental, medial, conditional or causal meanings, the actional and procedural deverbatives of the German language demonstrate their taxis polyfunctionality. They can realize both primary-taxis and certain second-taxis meanings of simultaneity (conditional-taxis, causal-taxis, instrumental-taxis, medial-taxis, modal-taxis).
The fairy tale about Morozko as a female quest: the experience of analysis
Authors: Almira R. Akhmedzyanova;
Introduction. The presented article is devoted to one of the possible aspects of the analysis of the plot of CIP 480*B “Stepmother and Stepdaughter”. In the introduction, the author emphasizes the relevance of the chosen fairy tale plot for different spheres of modern culture – from scientific to mass - and suggests that the plot is a female quest. The purpose of the article is to show the features of the development of the plot of the fairy tale of CIP 480*B “Morozko” and correlate it with the ideas of the female quest. Analyzing the methodological basis of the research presented in the article, the author comes to the conclusion that the works of A. N. Veselovsky, J. Campbell, V. Y. Propp, K. Vogler, M. Murdock have a common proven thesis: the path of the hero of a fairy tale is a purposeful, most often sacrificial journey between worlds, made with a given goal. In the main part of the article, the author characterizes the concept of a quest in folklore by the example of fairy tales and explores the implementation of the plot of CIP 480*B “Morozko” as a folklore quest. Conclusion. The article concludes with the structure of the folklore quest consisting of six stages: the initial situation and the manifestation of the call to wander, overcoming the first threshold – the road to the forest, a three- or two-time meeting with the deity – Frost/ Morozko‒ and the fulfillment of the test set by him or the refusal to fulfill it, the gift of wealth as a means of overcoming the test and a symbol of the material world to which the heroine must return, and the heroine's return to the earthly world. It is also concluded that the quest passed by the heroine is a tool for her transformation.
The concept of the basic unit of language in the system of N. Chomsky’s Minimalist program
Authors: Azat I. Gabitov; Leysan Kh. Shayakhmetova;
Introduction. N. Chomsky’s Minimalist program theory created the basis for the search and identification of a universal grammar of natural languages, a theory describing the innate components of a person's ability to use languages. According to this theory, lexical units play an important role in the construction of syntax. In the works of researchers on this topic there are conclusions indicating the similarity of the work of the syntax of natural languages and programming languages. Purpose. This study aims to form the concept of the basic unit of language containing the fundamental principles of the syntax for natural languages and programming languages. Materials and methods. The study is based on the scientific works of N. Chomsky, in particular on the basis of the Minimalist program and the theory of universal grammar. The study used methods of linguistic observation and description, constructive method, comparative analysis of potential basic units of the language. As such units, we have chosen objects and lexical units for programming languages and natural languages, respectively. Results, discussion. Analysis of the principles of functioning of objects in programming languages shows the presence of multiple points of correspondence with the principles laid down in the theory of the Minimalist program. Compared to natural languages, programming languages have no limitations in the linguistic study of the structure of language grammar at the level of a computing system. Conclusion. The data obtained during the linguistic study of objects in programming languages and their reverse engineering can be used to explain the principles of operation of lexical units in the grammar of natural languages.
Website as a means of popularization of non-material cultural heritage of the peoples of the Mari El Republic
UDC: 008 (47):37(045)
Authors: Tatyana A. Zolotova; Ekaterina A. Plotnikova;
Introduction. The traditional (folk) culture of the peoples of Russia continues to amaze with the richness and variety of its genre areas, the possibilities of their interaction and enrichment on this basis. Traditional (folk) culture has a great potential for integration. Folklore is still in demand in a variety of its representations at the turn of the 20th - 21st centuries. The creativity of the peoples of the Mari El Republic is of interest in the given matter. Purpose. The article is devoted to one of the urgent issues of modern folklore studies – search for perspective forms of popularization of non-material cultural heritage of the peoples of the Republic of Mari El. Methodology and materials. The article sums up the long-term experience of the Federal pedagogical network workshop “Project activities of primary schoolchildren in the field of ICT in the process of implementing the content of the EMC “Perspective” created on the basis of JSC “Publishing house “Prosveshchenie” in the RME in 2018. Research results. The activities of participants in the online pedagogical workshop to create a website are analyzed in detail. The current requirements for the content and design of websites of the Federal Service of Supervision in the Sphere of Education (Rosobrnadzor) of the Russian Federation and the companies Yandex and Google are given. The requirements determine sections of the site and interface and design. Much attention is paid to users’ intent. The data of a survey conducted by the participants of the pedagogical workshop among the intended users are analyzed. It is concluded that users consider it necessary to promote the principal ideas of the workshop and to display the materials on the basis of which this or that project is based. It is also necessary to present events and digital products conducted and created by the workshop participants. The survey shows that users appreciate it a lot that they can try the quest, choose the opportunity for completing a visual novel and so on. The developers have included some sections that provide information on educational institutions that participate in the workshop and materials (digital databases of folklore of the Mari El Republic), scientific activities, all-Russian events (webinars and conferences), interesting projects and contacts. The article provides detailed characteristics of all the site parts. Conclusion. The article concludes that the website is a perspective and effective form of popularization of non-material cultural heritage of the Republic of Mari El.
Manifestation of autobiographism and the autobiographical genre in Chuvash literature
Authors: Albina F. Myshkina; Marina P. Savirova; Tatyana N. Emelyanova;
Introduction. Any work of fiction is the result of the aesthetic work and worldview of an individual. No matter how the author strives to abstract from the problems, themes and storyline of the work, his feelings, thoughts and life situations of his biography always find their place in them. Based on this, the purpose of the study is to identify the degree of manifestation of autobiographism in literary work and to determine the main features of the autobiographical genre. Research materials and methods. The material for the analysis was the story of M. Trubina “Childhood”, the story of E. Lisina “A Piece of Bread”, the poetic cycle of V. Mitta “Taer”, the story of A. Myshkina “Father’s Blessing”. To achieve the goal, cultural-historical, comparative and hermeneutic methods of studying literary texts were used. Research results. Autobiography as a literary genre formation in Chuvash literary criticism has not been sufficiently studied. At the same time, quite clear features of the autobiographical genre have been identified in Russian literary criticism. Among them, we should highlight: the correlation of the hero’s image with the personality of the writer himself, the coincidence of the author's biography and the plot of the story, the chronological sequence of events, the creation of historical authenticity through the details of private life. The autobiographical genre differs from autobiographism in the work. Random coincidences or the author’s intentional use of the events and phenomena he has experienced do not form the autobiographical genre, it is more appropriate to note them as a manifestation of autobiographism in the poetics of the work. For the autobiographical genre, the conscious and purposeful presentation of “artistic autobiography” is more important. Conclusion. In a broad sense, autobiography is characteristic of the entire artistic system of realism, since the author starts from what he experienced or observed, learned himself, and proceeds from personal moral and spiritual experience. From the point of view of the genre in Chuvash literature, M. Trubina’s story “Childhood” should be mentioned among the classic autobiographical stories.
Ethnocultural information in Russian and national languages in the newspaper “Erzyan Mastor” (“The Country of Erzya”)
Authors: Elena M. Pyreskina;
Introduction. Within the framework of this study, a peculiar form of presenting ethnocultural information in Russian and Erzya in printed periodicals is being considered at the present time. Purpose. The purpose of this article is to reveal the specifics of providing information in two languages. Materials and methods. The theoretical basis of the scientific article contains observations of the researchers’ work on the consideration of ethnocultural topics and translation in the information space of the Republic of Mordovia – S. A. Rzhanova, L. D. Dryakhlova, E. M. Pyreskina, S. V. Pivkina and other authors. The empirical material was publications in Russian and Erzya from the independent socio-political newspaper “Erzyan Mastor” (“The Country of Erzya”) of 2022. The paper used traditional research methods: descriptive, comparative, analysis, synthesis, generalization. Research results, discussion. As a result of the conducted research, we have come to the conclusion that through bilingualism on the pages of the newspaper “Erzyan Mastor” (“The Country of Erzya”), information of ethnocultural content transmitted in a peculiar form not only attracts the audience’s attention, but also contributes to the study of the national language. Conclusion. Thus, the results of the analysis of the presentation of ethnocultural information in two languages were obtained, effective tools in journalistic activity were identified that allow preserving the “national flavor” in the structure of the transmitted information.
Linguistic features characteristic of the dialects of the Tatar language
Authors: Alina Ya. Khusainova; Alfiya K. Bulatova;
Introduction. There are three dialects in the Tatar language: middle, western, eastern (Tobol-Irtysh, Barabinsk and Tomsk), together with the Tatar literary language they form a system of the national language. The general system of a dialect language is characterized by features common to all dialects and specific features, characteristic of certain dialects and dialects. Recently, issues that are directly related to the status of dialects and sub-dialects of the Tatar language have become even more relevant. Some scientists or figures of the near-scientific fields express an opinion about the independent nature of some Tatar dialects and sub-dialects, despite the available objective justifications for the belonging of the above idioms to the Tatar national language. The purpose of this study is to identify and compare linguistic elements that show common linguistic phenomena in the Tatar dialect system. Materials and methods. The work used such methods as the field method of data collection, descriptive, which includes the following techniques: study of factual material, generalization, comparative-historical, comparative-contrast. Examples of the use of lexemes are taken from the authors’ field materials collected during expeditions in places of compact residence of Tatars, and data from dialectological dictionaries and the Atlas of Tatar folk dialects. Research results, discussions. This article examines the elements of the Eastern dialect, in particular the Tobol-Irtysh dialect, which are characteristic of all or several dialects of the Tatar language. The features are grouped into phonetics and vocabulary categories. Conclusion. Synchronous analysis of the dialects of the eastern, middle and western dialects of the Tatar language, that is, their current state in comparative, comparative-historical terms shows that there is a development of common features, convergence of dialects and their convergence with the Tatar literary language.
Some features of reflection of the non-central territory (periphery) in the German language
Authors: Nikolay L. Shamne; Marina V. Milovanova;
Introduction. The article is devoted to the consideration of objectification peculiarities in the German language of social exclusion and social inclusion categories in the territorial aspect by the example of individual lexemes. The study of the features of reflection in the language of socially significant categories is important, since these categories, in particular social exclusion and inclusion, determine the existence of the subject in society. The purpose of the work is to characterize the features of the objectification of the processes of territorial social exclusion, inclusion by the example of the Krähwinkel, Nest lexemes and to clarify the dictionary definitions of these units. The research material was the newspaper corpus of the digital dictionary system of the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences (DWDS). Methods of structural-semantic and contextual analysis, elements of the component analysis method were used in the course of the study. Research results, discussions. In the course of the study, the features of the objectification of the processes of territorial social exclusion and inclusion in the semantics of the lexemes Krähwinkel, Nest were established. The unit Krähwinkel expresses the following semantic features in the context: assessment of the designated space (mostly negative); an atmosphere of philistinism and narrow-mindedness (mainly in relation to the past); ambivalence of the nominated territory. The lexeme Nest: small spatial extent; special subject; lack of activity. The lexemes Krähwinkel and Nest are also noted in a few contexts that actualize the processes of social inclusion. Conclusion. The given characteristics suggest that the Krähwinkel and Nest units directly express the processes of territorial social exclusion: remoteness from the centre, the absence of any movement, changes. At the same time, these processes are objectified to a greater extent in the spatial sense by the lexeme Nest, the unit Krähwinkel mainly appears in the generalized symbolic meaning of “sociocultural outback”.