- VESTNIK 2 (46) 2022
- Date publication on the site:
- 2022-06-30 14:16:50
- Full journal in PDF:
Content all 17
Features of advanced training courses in German and Russian universities
Authors: Lyudmila A. Gerasimova; Natalya M. Podporina; Anna I. Kuklina;
Introduction. High-quality education is characterized by both the knowledge required in the main activity of a specialist, and by auxiliary skills and abilities. Knowledge of a foreign language is a necessary educational com-ponent for any specialist. Foreign language has become one of the most important disciplines in non-linguistic universities. The attitude of students towards its study has changed; as a result of this change, additional training programs in foreign languages appeared. The purpose of this work is to consider the features of promoting for-eign language courses in a non-linguistic university using the example of an additional professional retraining program “Translator in the field of professional communication” and to propose a number of measures to im-prove the promotion of these courses. Materials and methods. The following methods were used in the research process: analysis and synthesis, abstraction and concretization, study and generalization of best practices in the field of promoting educational services using the Internet sites of higher educational institutions. Research re-sults, discussion. It is shown that at present, the information content of the websites of language programs of Russian universities is inferior to the German ones in terms of the variety of services offered, the breadth and availability of the information provided. More than 150 course participants were interviewed in order to identify the reasons and motivation for learning a foreign language. Personal data has been collected, grouped and sta-tistically processed. The main factors of the attractiveness of such language courses for students are identified and proposals for improving the promotion of language programs are formulated. Conclusion. According to the results of the study, it can be concluded that today there are a sufficient number of language courses offering additional educational services. All of them have their own characteristics and demonstrate an original ap-proach to teaching. It has been established that students and specialists in technical specialties make up the overwhelming majority of students of language courses. Effective tools for promoting language courses were proposed.
Quality of professional activity of professional school teachers: criteria and indicators.
Authors: Gu Rong;
Introduction. In modern conditions, the educational system is not going through an easy period. In many re-spects, this is reflected both in the nature of education and upbringing, and in administrative settings, which are integral parts of the entire pedagogical system. This reveals the problem of studying the quality of professional activity of professional school teachers. Research problems. At present, the problem of teacher professionalism, his development and improvement is becoming a priority. One of the facets of its solution is a comprehensive analysis of the model of pedagogical activity, as a complex and integrative professional construct, as well as an assessment of the quality of the professional activity of professional school teachers, taking into account the relevant criteria and indicators. Purpose: to study modern ideas about the quality of professional activity of professional school teachers. Research objectives: to describe the phenomenon of “quality of professional ac-tivity”, to characterize the quality of a teacher’s professional activity, taking into account the challenges of the modern world. Materials and methods. The article used methods of comparison, analysis of scientific literature, system-logical method. The materials were publications of modern authors, which analyzed the criteria and in-dicators of the quality of professional activity of professional school teachers. The novelty of the study lies in the fact that within the framework of the article the criteria and indicators of the quality of the professional ac-tivity of teachers of a professional school are systematized, taking into account the challenges of our time. The results of theoretical analysis and generalization of the structural elements of the quality of professional activity of teachers of a professional school showed that it is considered by researchers as an analytical, reflective, cor-rective nature of the teacher's professional activity, as well as creative self-realization of the teacher's personali-ty.
The role of military sports all-around in the preparation of pre-conscription youth for military service
Authors: Stanislav I. Koshkin;
Introduction. The article presents the experience of general education organizations and organizations of sec-ondary vocational education on the use of military sports all-around in the system of training young people for service in the armed forces of the Russian Federation. Attention is focused on the role and place of military sports all-around in the formation of physical fitness, the development of patriotic feelings and fighting spirit of future defenders of the Fatherland. The purpose of this article is to summarize the experience of practical work, to determine the role, place and significance of the use of military sports all-around in the physical training of young men for service in the armed forces of the Russian Federation. Materials and methods. The leading me-thod of research of the stated topic is an analysis that contributes to the study of the role of military sports all-around in the preparation of pre-conscription young men for military service, as well as modeling of program material to determine the content and place of use of elements of military sports all-around in physical educa-tion lessons and extracurricular activities. The result of the study was to determine the role, significance and spe-cifics of the use of military sports all-around in the preparation of students of general education organizations and organizations of secondary vocational education for military service. The discussion confirmed the validity of a practice-oriented study on the role and place of the use of military sports all-around in the practice of phys-ical education in general education organizations and organizations of secondary vocational education in pre-paring young people for military service. Conclusion. The analysis of practical experience, the role and signifi-cance of the use of military sports all-around in the system of physical training of students of general education organizations and organizations of secondary vocational education for military service is carried out. This arti-cle is useful for physical education teachers, deputy heads of educational work, employees of military commis-sariats.
Organization of physical education and sports classes for international students
Authors: Valentina V. Kudryavtseva; Svetlana N. Fedorova;
Introduction. The current state of the professional education system around the world is characterized by high academic mobility. As practice shows, the beginning of education of international students in new socio-cultural conditions causes stress, psychophysiological problems, reduction of work capacity, exacerbation of chronic diseases, etc., associated with adaptation to a new way of life, to a new language environment, to a new climate, to a new social environment. The main problems in organizing physical education classes with interna-tional students are also related to the presence of specific religious and cultural traditions and the peculiarities of adaptation of foreign students to living and learning conditions in a new socio-cultural environment. The pur-pose of this work is to identify the conditions for effective organization of physical education and sports classes with international students. Materials and methods. Methods of analysis of scientific and methodological works, ge-neralization of advanced practical experience on the research topic, allowing to consider the problem of or-ganization of physical education classes for international students in Russian universities, as well as quantitative and qualitative analysis of the results of control tests were used in the work. Research results, discussion. As the results of the study showed, some indicators of physical fitness in international students are statistically more developed than in Russian students, and some, on the contrary, are lower. Conclusion. The special role of the course “Physical Education and Sports” in higher education institution, due to its health-improving orientation and compulsory for all universities and faculties without exception, requires special attention to the organization of physical education and sports classes for international students. While organizing and conducting classes, the factors of cultural and religious characteristics of international students, their initial level of physical fitness, peculiarities of adaptation in new socio-cultural conditions should be taken into account.
Analysis of quality management methods of university students training
Authors: Sergei Yu. Lavrentiev; Linar G. Akhmetov; Dmitry A. Krylov;
Introduction. The study reveals the tendencies of reforming the economic, cultural, educational space, which characterize the transition from the industrial to the post-industrial stage of the development of society, and the technogenic nature of modernization is aimed at improving the quality of professional training of university students. The national projects currently being implemented contribute to more efficient use in the university environment of progressive models and tools for managing the quality of the education system, educational programs implemented with the direct participation of consumers of educational services and all interested par-ties. The purpose of the research is the study, comparative analysis of models and tools of education quality ma-nagement. Materials and methods of research. Methodological scientific literature in the field of theory and practice of education quality management, special literature revealing the problems of introducing national quality standards into the educational process of universities served as materials and methods of research. Comparative analysis and generalization of existing Russian and foreign models and quality management tools contribute to the systematization of practical experience of increasing efficiency in the professional training of students of a modern university. It is shown that one of the main goals of the educational activities of an educa-tional organization is satisfaction with the quality of educational services on the part of consumers, buyers and interested parties. The tools for achieving the goal are a set of measures to purposefully improve the perfor-mance of an educational organization. The most widely used methods and models in modern Russian and for-eign practice that provide quality management of education are considered. Therefore, for more flexible adap-tation to emerging threats of the external environment of an educational organization, setting up a quality management system should use the potential of the internal environment.
Features of teaching Chinese at junior courses of Russian humanities universities
Authors: Li Shulun;
Statement of the problem. The main goal of learning a foreign language is the formation of intercultural compe-tence. A significant difference between Chinese and Russian languages does not allow provi-ding education in modern Russian universities, the result of which is a high level of proficiency in spoken language and writing. This issue becomes especially relevant in the situation of global integration and strengthening of relations be-tween China and Russia. For this reason, it is necessary to identify all the features of learning Chinese by Rus-sian students and find methods for solving them. In this regard, the purpose of the study is to identify the main features of teaching Chinese at junior courses of Russian humanities universities. The methodology includes: the study of theoretical literature and practical experience of foreign and Russian specialists. Results of the study. The reason for the difficulty of teaching Russian students lies not only in the diversity and significant dif-ference between Chinese hieroglyphs and European letters, but also in the difficulty of perceiving the entire language structure. The Chinese language is a language of images and concepts, the main purpose of which writing is visualization. The keys, of which there are 214 pieces in the Chinese language, help to understand the variety of hieroglyphs in many ways. At the initial stage of teaching junior students of Russian universities, first of all, it is necessary to convey to them the features of the language, and show that learning Chinese is not so much about memorizing hieroglyphs and the way they are written, but about understanding the features of the language, its structure and essence. Conclusions. Based on the analysis of theoretical literature and practical experience, it can be concluded that at the initial stage it is necessary to fulfill a number of requirements, including the correct selection of exercises and the study of cultural characteristics. But the main feature of teaching at the initial stage is that it is necessary to interest students, show them the meaning of the Chinese language, employment prospects and development.
Continuity of general and universal competencies in the conditions of continuing education “college – university”
Authors: Irina V. Nikolaeva; Dmitry A. Krylov ;
Introduction. The article presents the result of a comparative analysis of the essence and content of general competencies formed by students of secondary vocational education and universal competencies formed in higher education in terms of the following parameters - the appointment of competence from the standpoint of social order, the essence and content of competencies and the successive nature of competencies. Purpose: comparison of general competencies formed in the framework of secondary vocational education and universal competencies - in the framework of higher education in bachelor's degree areas. Materials and methods. This study is based on the analysis of the federal state educational standards of secondary vocational and higher education using the method of expert evaluation. Research results, discussion. The study showed that the for-mation of general and universal competencies in the conditions of secondary vocational education and higher education fundamentally have a common goal - the development of basic characteristics that provide the solu-tion of social problems for future specialists, the possibility of more efficient use of professional competencies, professional growth and development. A comparison of general and universal competencies by categories iden-tified in higher education showed that in most cases we can talk about a high degree of compliance. The conti-nuity between general and universal competencies can be clearly traced, and for each category of competencies there is a complication or deepening at the level of higher education in the areas of bachelor's degree. At the lev-el of secondary vocational education, the formation of general competencies involves the development of the graduate's personal qualities, which ensure the implementation of activities at a certain qualification level of a mid-level specialist. In higher education (undergraduate level), the categories of universal competencies are more specific in content. This predetermines greater freedom and activity of all participants in the educational process, the ability to choose their own trend in achieving learning outcomes. Conclusion. Thus, the organiza-tion of continuity in the formation of general and professional competencies in the conditions of continuous education “college-university” provides more effective and optimal training of specialists in obtaining educa-tion of different skill levels.
Formation of students’ legal culture in the educational environment of high school.
Authors: Tatyana N. Petrova; Marina V. Pavlova; Arkady M. Kurochkin; Olga V. Timofeeva;
Introduction. The recognition by a person of the right as a socio-moral value determines student’s nature of so-cial behavior and the level of social activity. At a university, in the process of studying psychological, pedagogi-cal, legal, social and humanitarian disciplines, students master systemically integrated social and legal knowledge that form legal consciousness. The results of mastering this are subsequently manifested in actions and deeds. According to the authors, the formation of students’ legal culture in the educational environment of the university is a complex and lengthy process, depending primarily on the level of perception and understand-ding of the basic social and legal values. In connection with this provision, the authors of the article quite legiti-mately state that the legal culture of students determines the degree of development of their legal consciousness. The purpose of this article is to identify the pedagogical conditions for the formation of students’ legal culture and the disclosure of the pedagogical potential of the reflexively oriented environment of a higher educational institution. The methodological basis of the research is the ideas of Russian philosophical thought about man as a social Self-worth (N. A. Berdyaev, A. A. Verbitsky, I. A. Ilyin, etc.); various axiological, legal, legal aspects of legal culture; methodological approaches: systemic, axiological; environmental, humanistic, personality-oriented. The authors relied on the following set of research methods: theoretical: analysis of literature on the problem under study, study and generalization of the experience of organizing the pedagogical process of the university, synthesis and generalization; empirical: questionnaire, testing, expert assessment, pedagogical exper-iment; quantitative processing of experimental work results. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the identi-fication of the pedagogical potential of the reflexively oriented educational environment of the university, used in the formation of students’ legal culture. Conclusion. The authors hypothetically assume that for the effective formation of students’ legal culture at the university, it is necessary to create a reflexively oriented educational environment in order to actively include the student as a subject in various forms and types of legal activity. The data obtained during the experiment confirmed the hypothesis of the authors’ research.
Pedagogical conditions for the formation of emotional well-being of younger schoolchildren in vocal lessons
Authors: Natalia V. Sinitsyna; Tatyana N. Petrova;
Introduction. This article is devoted to the problem of emotional well-being of schoolchildren, the develop-ment of emotional responsiveness in vocal lessons at a children’s art school, the beneficial effect of music on the physical and emotional state of a child, methods and techniques of working with younger schoolchildren. The article presents various points of view and opinions of authoritative authors related to issues of emotional well-being, its main characteristics and factors affecting a positive and comfortable emotional state of a person. The question of the beneficial influence of music on the emotional sphere of the child, pedagogical techniques and methods for the formation of emotional well-being, emotional responsiveness, cognitive activity, harmoni-zation of the creative process is considered. Examples of practical activity as a form of work on the formation of a stable positive emotional state in younger schoolchildren at vocal lessons at the children’s art school are giv-en. The purpose of the study is the generalization of theoretical research and practical experience of working with younger schoolchildren in vocal lessons at the children’s art school using effective pedagogical tech-niques and methods in solving the issue of emotional well-being of schoolchildren. Materials and methods. The research materials were analytical work with literature relevant to the research topic and generalization of the practice of educational musical activity with children of primary school age. The methods of research of the stated topic are theoretical analysis (review of pedagogical, psychological and musical-pedagogical literature), an empirical method (observation, comparison, experiment), universal method (analysis, modeling), allowing us to consider this problem as a purposeful and organized process to improve the methodology of teaching vocals in children’s art school. Research results, discussion. The result of the study was the analysis of pedagogical techniques and methods used in the vocal lesson in junior grades as a way of forming the emotional well-being of schoolchildren. The discussion confirmed the importance of practice-oriented research, systematization of work on the introduction of effective pedagogical approaches in the practice of musical and vocal education. Conclusion. The practical experience of using effective pedagogical techniques and methods in the system of vocal (musical) training of younger schoolchildren is summarized. This article is useful for teachers of vocal, choral and solo singing and other disciplines taught at the children's art school, for music teachers, heads of vo-cal studios, clubs, etc.
Implementation of the competence-based approach of distance learning Chinese for senior students of Russian humanities universities
Authors: Zeng Yunting;
Introduction Chinese is the most difficult language to learn. This is especially true for teaching students of non-linguistic universities. One of the modern approaches to learning is an approach based on the assessment of the level of students’ competence. This approach makes it possible to achieve the main goals of the pedagogical process, to increase the effectiveness of training, both for each student and for the study group. This approach is especially effective in conditions of a shortage of qualified teaching staff. In general, the competence-based approach can be considered as the basis of a system for achieving common learning goals. The purpose of this work is to study the features of the application of the competence-based approach in dis-tance learning of the Chinese language for senior students of humanities. Materials and methods. The methodo-logical basis of the work is general scientific methods, methods of comparative analysis, methods of theoretical analysis, method of documentary analysis, observation. The result of writing this work was the identification of the features of the application of the competence-based approach in distance learning. It is established that an important function of distance learning is the development of skills of independent organization of the learning process by students. Distance learning is aimed at the use of information and interactive technologies. The modern paradigm of education provides for the active use of such techniques. This competence has appeared relatively recently in educational standards, however, it quickly confirmed its importance. In the course of writ-ing the work, the author concluded that the essence of the competence-based approach is to focus the educa-tional process on its results: the formation of the necessary general cultural and professional competencies, self-determination, socialization, personality development and self-actualization.
Modern discourse of the Mari traditional religion as an object of linguistic analysis
UDC: 811.511.151 + 25
Authors: Lyubov A. Abukaeva;
Introduction. In the context of the conversion of believers to the lost traditions of the Mari ethnic religion, the emergence of new elements in it, on the one hand, and the obsolescence of traditions, on the other hand, it is necessary to investigate the current state of texts and rituals of the Mari traditional religion (MTR) in their integ-rity. The purpose of this work is to study the social context behind the oral and partly written speech of modern MTR cultists, and to determine the relationship between language and social processes. Materials and methods. The research materials are published texts of Mari prayers, as well as materials of folklore and ethnographic ex-peditions of MarSRILLH, MarSU, notes of the author of the article. The descriptive method and contextual analysis of the discourse were used in the work. Research results, discussions. The modern discourse of the MTR is represented by a system of prayer texts that function in the context of traditional prayers (family, tribal, rural, prayers within the framework of a religious union, district, all-Mari), blessings and parting words during family and calendar holidays. In addition, the religious discourse retains a detailed system of genres aimed at the communication of an individual believer with the supreme god, gods, deities and spirits. The corpus of Mari religious texts is enriched by such genres as salamlim mut ‘congratulations’, sugyn ‘blessing, parting words’ dur-ing socially significant events; appeal in any exceptional cases, interviews and essays, commentary, explanation of the semantic content of rituals and holidays, about the activities of communities. Conclusion. In the condi-tions of growing interest in traditional culture, the return of the Mari ethnic religion to the public space, the estab-lishment of a link between the socio-political and religious spheres of life of the Mari people, religious rituals are undergoing transformation. In order to introduce the religion and its values, unite believers, share the experience of holding prayers, the clergy of the Mari religion are currently widely using modern media platforms, which leads to an expansion of the audience, the emergence of new genres. The main characteristics of the modern discourse of the Mari ethnic religion are sacredness, dialogue, emotionality, modality of requests and desires.
Provincial theatre communities in Russia: problems of study (on the basis of communities of the Mari El Republic)
Authors: Tatyana A. Zolotova; Ekaterina A. Plotnikova;
Introduction. The paper examines specialized performances, practices, and texts existing in Russian provincial theatre communities. Their role in the formation of professional identity and functioning of theatre communities as a whole is shown. Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to reveal and describe the professional traditions of the actors’ community of the Russian Academic Drama Theatre named after G. Konstantinov and to show their importance for the interaction between the actors and the audience and for the socio-cultural life of the community as a whole. Materials and methods. Day-to-day practices are described from “the point of view of the actor” (T. B. Shchepanskaya). Correspondingly, folklore and ethnographic methods of analysis are used: surveys, observation, in-depth interviews, autobiographical materials, and publications in regional media. The authors focus on the theatre community of the Russian Academic Drama Theatre named after G. Konstantinov (Yoshkar-Ola, Mari El Republic). Research results, discussion. The paper represents the analysis of subcultural traditions of both stage actors and the audience. The actors’ assessment of the level of the audience’s compe-tence and ability to understand significant values of the theatre community is revealed. It is expressed in the categories that make a stage actor stand out against the rest of the society: polarization, decommunication, special meaning, and stigma. The concept of professionalism is also connected with mystical ideas: sacraliza-tion of the stage, belief in the existence of theatre spirits, and negative emotions experienced by actors during certain performances. The exceptional importance of initiatory rituals in the development of an actor is noted. The analysis of interaction between the actors and the audience has demonstrated the audience’s high expecta-tions for the development of the Russian Academic Drama Theatre named after G. Konstantinov. The audience is keenly interested in the repertoire of the theatre, with its balance between classical and modern plays and bril-liant performance of the stage actors. The actors’ and the audience’s attitudes to the abilities of their interpreta-tion of the classics match each other. Conclusion. The conclusion is made that by now the Russian Theatre has found its audience, and its actors have found their admirers that are interested in the theatre’s further develop-ment and the improvement of its status both in the Mari El Republic and in Russia as a whole. Such an analysis promotes the formation and development of cross-cultural communication and the openness of the society. The authors also provide evidence of the use of the professional (theatre) folklore in the activities of educational institutions of the Republic of Mari El.
The concept of “conscience” as a value naturfication in the works of A. S. Pushkin
Authors: Igor P. Karpov; Raisiya A. Kudryavtseva;
Introduction. An ordinary person, in addition to words with a direct meaning that serve his immediate needs, uses value words and concepts such as beautiful, ugly, good, evil, harmony, conscience and others. What does the author, as a subject of literary and artistic activity, do with value naturfications? To answer this question was the purpose of our observations on the functioning of the word-concept “conscience” in the works of A. S. Pushkin. Materials and methods. A lot of research has been devoted to “conscience”, today called a con-cept, the most fruitful ones are presented in aspects of logical analysis of language. Another area of research is determined by the task of understanding the peculiarities of the artistic world. In our case it is to understand the meaning of the concept of “conscience” for the author’s worldview and world understanding. Taking a logical position, we still focus on the author and on the literary and artistic work as a poetic reality. We approach “con-science” as a value concept purely logically, thinking within the analytical method: the subject of activity – ac-tivity (means of activity) – the object of activity. Research results, discussions. Value concepts potentially con-tain their opposite content (good – evil), therefore, alternative thinking is understood by us in a strictly logical sense – as the specificity of any judgment that either asserts the existence of something or denies it. Value words, on the one hand, indicate the subject, on the other – the personal basis of their meaning, the assessment: a kind person is not generally kind, but for someone, in the perception of someone. As a source material, we take two monologues – of Boris Godunov and of the Covetous Knight, making observations on alternative thinking and conflict, value naturfication “conscience” and the system “author and character”, naturfication and seman-tic field, naturfication and image. Conclusion. In the literary text, the author illustrates the possibility of human thinking to endlessly use value words and value concepts, because the author gives them to characters who act as everyday subjects, use value naturfications as intuitively clear. Value naturfications are endowed with meta-phorical predicates, often they themselves act as metaphors. Thanks to the detailed predication, value naturfica-tions can include a huge number of the most incredible meanings (comparing conscience with a witch, “From which the moon and the graves fade / They get confused and send out the dead ...”). Value naturfications, exist-ing in the system of alternative thinking, determine the conflicting and more broadly figurative structure of the work. In our particular case, the naturfication of “conscience” brings the author (A. S. Pushkin) and us, the read-ers, to the problem of the role of conscience in human life.
The genealogical line of the bogatyr Manas in the Kyrgyz heroic epic “Manas” in the versions of different story-tellers
Authors: Cholpon T. Subakozhoeva;
Introduction. An outstanding monument of oral folk art, the Kyrgyz heroic epic “Manas”, the fruit of the crea-tion of many generations of folk singers, occupies a prominent place in world folklore. The storytellers of the epic “Manas” are popularly called “manaschi”. The epic “Manas” is a multivariate work. The actual problem at present is the problem of studying the epic “Manas” by scientific comparison of its various versions. The pur-pose of this article is to compare the genealogical line of the genus of the bogatyr Manas in the variants of the Kyrgyz epic “Manas” belonging to the storytellers Sagymbay Orozbakov, Sayakbay Karalaev and Zhusup Ma-may. The author used a complex, including textological, descriptive, comparative-historical, historical-typological approaches. Research methods make it possible to consider the problem of the existence and de-velopment of the epic “Manas”. As a result of the study, all three versions of the epic “Manas” fully cover the traditionally stable events, the complexity and diversity of the plot, the richness of images, the colorfulness in the description of the characters and the environment, life, traditions, beliefs, deep folk ideas. It can be conclud-ed that the variants of the epic have a number of distinctive features. Comparing the genealogical line in the ep-ic “Manas” in the versions of the narrators Sagymbay Orozbakov, Sayakbay Karalaev, Zhusup Mamay, we see that they paid quite a lot of attention to the description of the ancestors of Manas, although in each version dif-ferent names of the ancestors are given. In conclusion, it should be noted that the version of the epic “Manas” by the storyteller from China, Zhusup Mamay, and the version of the storytellers from Kyrgyzstan, Sagymbay Orozbakov and Sayakbay Karalayev, have the same origin, common ancient mythological roots, since the Kyr-gyz ethnos in Kyrgyzstan and China is connected by linguistic kinship, and in the past - by areal closeness and unity of historical development. A comparative study of the variants of the epic “Manas” that exist in Kyrgyz-stan and Xinjiang made it possible to determine the degree of preservation and variability of the text, to resolve a number of issues of the composition and existence of epic texts within the framework of national epic tradi-tions.
Implementation of the myth-epic picture of the world in M. Jalil’s drama poem “Altynchech”
Authors: Ruslan Z. Khairullin;
Introduction. The dramatic poem “Altynchech” rightfully occupies an important place in the work of Musa Jalil and is his great creative success. This is a narrative from ancient Tatar history, telling about the struggle of the Volga peoples against oppression and violence and affirming the idea of the invincibility of the people. “Altynchech” is a serious attempt at artistic understanding of the historical past of the Tatar people. The pur-pose of the article is to analyze how in his work M. Jalil embodies a myth-epic picture of the world, which is based on a myth-epic consciousness, which is a transition between mythological and epic consciousness. Mate-rials and methods. The material of the study is the dramatic poem “Altynchech”, later transformed into a libret-to of the opera of the same name. The main methods of research are comparative, comparative and historical, analytical, textual. Research results, discussion. In the process of analyzing the work, it was revealed that the myth-epic model of the world is due to the features of myth-epic thinking. The myth-epic model of the world is based on a special type of thinking, reflected in various semiotic incarnations of myth-epic consciousness. In this regard, the dramatic poem “Altynchech” is advisable to consider as a continuation of the mythological tradition based on the syncretism of consciousness, the undivided nature of time and space, and the unity of man and nature. M. Jalil’s work “Altynchech”, reflecting the life of the Tatar people, should be investigated in the context of heroic epics of other peoples of Russia and the Near Abroad, as well as other works of the author’s and folk heroic epic. Conclusion. As a result of the study, the author concludes that the myth-epic model of the world presented in M. Jalil’s poem is to be interpreted as a transitional one that reflects the development of the con-sciousness of the Tatar people from mythological to epic and his mentality in the period depicted in the work.
Parceling and attachment: criteria of differentiation
Authors: Galina I. Shpareva;
Introduction. The term “parceling” was introduced to linguistics only in the second half of the XX century and, obviously, is still under scientific research. The theory of attachment served as a scientific and theoretical basis for the formation of the linguistic category “parceling”. However, scientific research of recent decades proves the impossibility of the identification of parceling and attachment. Purpose: to state the criteria of differentia-tion of parceling and attachment. Materials and methods. Literary works of the XX century in Russian, Chu-vash and English were used as the material for the study. A systematic approach and generalization were used to ground the criteria of differentiation of parceling and attachment. The comparative method was applied to demonstrate experimentally the functioning of the accepted criteria of differentiation of parceling and attachment as fundamental, using the examples from three differently structured languages: Russian, Chuvash and English. Results, discussion. Based on the analysis and generalization of the criteria proposed by modern researchers, two fundamental criteria of differentiation of parceling and attachment are named: functional-semantic and structural-grammatical. According to the functional-semantic criterion, attached constructions are those in which the detached component expands the meaning of the basic sentence and performs the function of an extra meaning. In parcelled constructions, the parcel performs an expressive function and gives semantic or logical emphasis to the component separated. Reintegration, i.e. reconstruction of the original syntactic struc-ture by eliminating punctuation marks, is proposed to be used as the main technique of the structural-grammatical criterion. Conclusion. This paper summarizes the experience of many years linguistic research de-voted to the problem of differentiation of parceling and attachment. Two fundamental criteria are given, the functioning of which is confirmed by illustrative material from differently structured languages. The results of this study can be used in scientific and practical activities devoted to the problems of functioning of both parcel-ing and attachment.
Endocentric nomination of English ichtionyms
Authors: Svetlana L. Yakovleva;
Introduction. The article considers cognitive grounds of terms nomination with a common integral semantic trait “fish” on the basis of 241 lexical units (LU). The objective is to identify the motivational features of the endocentric ichtionyms nomination. The research material includes ichtionyms with a transparent inner form, selected by a complete sampling method from specialized dictionaries. Methods. Descriptive method, compo-nent analysis method, semantic analysis method, comparative and statistical methods are used in the research. Research results, discussion. Analysis of the morphological structure revealed the dominance of multi-component terms (two or more components with separate spelling) over one-component LU, as well as high va-lence LU. Multi-component terms with a transparent inner form are divided into two-component (46.95 %), three-component (45.12 %) and four-component (7.93 %) ichtionyms. Motivational features are determined on the basis of direct and indirect nomination. The endocentric nomination on the graduality scale is determined as follows: body appearance of the fish as a whole and of individual organs (structure of the head, fins); coloration of the fish; range of distribution (type of terrain, country name, nature of water resource); fish actions; presence of numerals in nomination. Because of their complex structure, the names of fish are also verbalized on the ba-sis of metaphorical transfer: animal→animal, animal→man. Conclusion. The analysis of terms with a transpar-ent internal form showed that the maximum motivational information is contained in the endocentric nomina-tion.