Current issue

Title:
VESTNIK 1 (45) 2022
Number:
1
Year:
2022
Date publication on the site:
2022-03-31 16:16:47
Full journal in PDF:
METAPHORICAL IMAGE OF SCHOOLS IN KYRGYZSTAN
UDC: УДК:373.51
Section: PEDAGOGICS
Authors: Kadiyan S. Boobekova ; Kishimjan Z. Eshenkulova;
Metaphor in pedagogy is used for the purpose of a deeper study of educational activities. Metaphors were used as tools in data collection for understanding the situation in the education system of Kyrgyzstan. The purpose of this study is to determine the metaphorical models of schools, high school students’ perception and attitude to their schools and the education system as a whole, as well as to compare their metaphorical images. Materi-als and methods. This study is a qualitative study, where the “phenomenon” was analyzed and a content analy-sis was made, reflecting the points of view of schoolchildren through metaphors. The data is analyzed in three stages, such as defining, analysis and categorization. This study involved high school students from var-ious regions of Kyrgyzstan. Research results, discussion. The findings show that 72,44 % of high school stu-dents used positive, 21,59 % of them - negative and 5,97 % of them − apathetic metaphors for their schools. The majority of students perceives their school as a home, considers it a second home, the center of knowledge, a universe, a great, pleasant and developing place and their approaches were positive. 52,5 % of the participants who used positive metaphors, perceived their schools as a home. The results show that ‘home’ was a dominant metaphor in this study. Some participants are not satisfied with their schools. They perceive it as a crowded, bor-ing, old, cold and not meeting modern requirements place. Some of them perceive their school as a place of pun-ishment, such as prison, hospital, tax office, and so on. Others used apathetic metaphors for their schools such as a place of waste of time and entertainment.
SUPPORT OF THE PROFESSIONAL CHOICE OF GRADUATES IN CONDITIONS OF COOPERATION BETWEEN THE LYCEUM AND THE KEY UNIVERSITY OF THE REGION
UDC: УДК 37.048.45
Section: PEDAGOGICS
Authors: Nadezhda N. Golovina; Flera Ya. Khabibullina;
Introduction. Accompanying high school students in the process of professional self-determination is an urgent task for the main subjects of vocational guidance − schools and universities. The article reveals the specifics of cooperation between the rural lyceum and the key university in the organization of professional orientation of students in grades 8−11. The purpose of the article is to summarize theoretical research and the results of practi-cal experience of joint work of the Mari State University and the Korkatovsky Lyceum of the Republic of Mari El to support the professional choice of high school students. Materials and methods. The material for the study was the program documents of the last decade on the issues of professional self-determination of students: the National Project “Education” (2018), the Concepts of supporting professional self-determination of students in the conditions of continuity of education, developed by the Center of the FSAU “FIROˮ 2012, 2015). Three main groups of methods were used in the work: theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature on the problems of the article, modeling, study and generalization of best practices in the management of educa-tional systems. The result of the research was the development of the theory of support of professional choice of school graduates; improvement of the methodology of support of professional choice of school graduates based on the model of systematic career guidance work with schoolchildren, the main directions of which are: profes-sional information, self-determination training, practice-oriented support of professional choice; proper orienta-tion in the world of modern professions and a conscious choice of vocational and educational trajectory by stu-dents of senior classes of the lyceum, depending on their interests, abilities, vocation, opportunities, personal characteristics, health status, and the like. The discussion confirmed: the importance of supporting the profes-sional choice of school graduates based on the model of systematic career guidance, the practical orientation of methodological innovations in career guidance carried out in cooperation between the key university and the rural lyceum to support the professional choice of students; the significance of the experience gained for the practice of cooperation between secondary educational organizations and organizations of higher professional education in supporting students. Conclusion. The long-term practical experience in supporting the profession-al choice of high school students in the conditions of cooperation between the lyceum and the key university is summarized, methodological approaches to the organization of career guidance are defined, conclusions are drawn on the effectiveness of the development of work on comprehensive support of professional choice and as-sistance in building a career trajectory.
TO THE ISSUE OF DIAGNOSTICS OF ETHNOCULTURAL SOCIALIZATION OF FUTURE FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS
UDC: УДК 37.013.8
Section: PEDAGOGICS
Authors: Nadezhda M. Korshunova;
Introduction. The article presents the results of diagnosing the levels of ethnocultural socialization of future teachers at the ascertaining and control stages of experimental work on the ethnocultural socialization of future teachers of foreign languages. The research was carried out on the Faculty of Foreign Languages of the Chuvash State Pedagogical University named after I. Yakovlev. Purpose: diagnostics of ethnocultural socialization of fu-ture teachers of foreign languages. Materials and methods. Theoretical and empirical methods such as literature analysis on the research problem, questionnaires, surveys, testing, observation, conversation, methods of math-ematical processing of results were used in the study. Research results, discussion. In the course of the study, based on the identified components of ethnocultural socialization of future teachers: cognitive, emotional-evaluative, value and activity criteria, indicators and levels of ethnocultural socialization determined on their basis, the results of diagnostics of ethnocultural socialization of future teachers at the ascertaining and control stages of the experiment were analyzed. Conclusion. The analysis of the diagnostic study showed that the levels of ethno-cultural socialization of future teachers of foreign languages increased according to knowledge, reflex-ive, value and activity criteria as a result of purposeful work on ethno-cultural socialization of future teachers.
MONITORING THE READINESS OF FUTURE SPEECH THERAPISTS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL SUPPORT OF STUDENTS
UDC: УДК: 378.1
Section: PEDAGOGICS
Authors: Elena V. Koryakova;
Introduction. The article is devoted to the current topic - the formation of the readiness of future teachers-speech therapists for psychological and pedagogical support of students with disabilities. The system of peda-gogical monitoring of the readiness of future speech therapists for psychological and pedagogical support of students with disabilities is described in detail. The purpose of the study is to monitor the readiness of future speech therapists for psychological and pedagogical support of students with disabilities. Materials and meth-ods. A theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature on the problem of research, a system of pedagogi-cal monitoring are presented. The criteria of the future speech therapist's readiness for psychological and peda-gogical support of students with disabilities are defined: the motivational component of readiness (the presence of the future speech therapist's motives, goals, needs for professional training, the formation of interest in psy-chological and pedagogical support of students in inclusive education); cognitive component of readiness for psychological and pedagogical support (availability of a set of scientific knowledge about psychological and pedagogical support of students in inclusive education, knowledge of speech therapy technology, its essence and structural components, technology for solving problems of training and education); activity component (ability to apply special knowledge in practice, skills of diagnosis and assessment of problems of speech development and correction, knowledge of technologies of psychological and pedagogical support, ability to anticipate and predict the development of the process of psychological and pedagogical support of students in inclusive educa-tion); reflexive component of readiness for psychological and pedagogical support (assessment of the impact of psychological and pedagogical support on the child’s speech development, the ability to analyze and self-evaluate the results of their professional activities). Each component of readiness for psychological and peda-gogical support of students is evaluated at three levels: low, medium and high. The result of the study was a qualitative assessment of the level of readiness of future speech therapists for psychological and pedagogical support of students with disabilities. In conclusion, the author presents empirical data on the monitoring of the readiness of future speech therapists for psychological and pedagogical support of students with disabilities.
PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL CONDITIONS OF SELF-DEVELOPMENT OF A FUTURE TEACHER IN THE PROCESS OF PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICE
UDC: УДК 378.147.88
Section: PEDAGOGICS
Authors: Galina N. Shvetsova; Maya N. Shvetsova;
The article deals with the problem of creating conditions for self-development of future teachers in the process of continuous pedagogical practice. The authors see self-development as the highest form of professional and pedagogical activity that can be developed through improving the organization of practical training of future teachers. The article describes the functions of practice, the principles of practice organization, the conditions under which it will be most effective. The conditions of practice organization are divided into basic and second-ary, the basic ones include an individually differentiated approach, involving the development of personality under the influence of social and educational influences while ensuring an active position; taking into account the interests and abilities of each student; increasing the level of self-education and self-development, updating the needs of the individual in knowledge, skills and abilities of pedagogical work; achieving success in pedagogi-cal activity, encouraging personality’s emotionally positive attitude towards it. Secondary conditions include the choice of an object; planning or correct calculation of practice time; logical sequence, complication of assign-ments and activities of students. In order to test the conditions for effective continuous pedagogical practice, we organized experimental work at the Mari State University. The subsequent check was carried out in the process of organizing such a pedagogical practice at Kazan State University. Continuous pedagogical practice was or-ganized as the content basis of the formative experiment. Conditionally, we have identified three stages in con-ducting continuous pedagogical practice: preparatory, basic and final. The article presents the conclusions of the study, which shows that effective education of professional and pedagogical activity is achieved by varying the degree of independence of students in the process of pedagogical practice.
IMPROVING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES THROUGH THE USE OF MUSIC AND DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES
UDC: УДК 378
Section: PEDAGOGICS
Authors: Aksar A. Eltemerov;
Introduction. The era of digitalization is steadily modernizing the education system, bringing changes in all ar-eas of vocational education. New promising solutions are confidently replacing the traditional ways of transmit-ting information, and at the same time, professional knowledge. First of all, changes occurred in the technical sphere, which radically changed the material base of educational institutions, opening up new opportunities for teachers and ways to solve pedagogical problems. Personal gadgets of all levels have become mobile, versatile and affordable. Thanks to this, the world of science opens up new frontiers that have become available in the era of digitalization. The purpose of the study: due to the identification of additional pedagogical means to im-prove the effectiveness of the educational and training process in physical education classes, reflects the search for new solutions and approaches to motivate university students to sports. Studies have been carried out to de-termine the optimal tempo of music for independent running training over long distances with students from one of the universities of the fire-technical profile. Materials and methods. In his research, the author uses a theoretical analysis of the results of practical tests in running with different music tempos. The researcher creat-ed 6 variations of one 12-minute composition, differing only in tempo, which the subjects tested on long run-ning distances of more than 3 kilometers. The object of the study is to identify the optimal training pace in long-distance running. The subject of the study is the pedagogical technology for determining the optimal tem-po of music for additional motivation of students for independent running training over long distances. Re-search results, discussion. The work revealed and proved the influence of music on the results of running, in-creasing the motivation of students, and as a result, increasing the overall level of physical fitness. Conclusion. The variety of forms of educational activities organization in the context of digitalization is increasing signifi-cantly. The positive influence of music has now been proven. Simultaneous playback of a musical composition, corresponding with its tempo to the rhythm of a student's run, significantly increases the emotional background with a positive effect, which contributes to improving the quality of training sessions, and at the same time in-creasing the level of physical fitness of university students. Modern digital solutions have made it possible to introduce music into the pedagogical process at a more subtle personal level simultaneously with group learn-ing technology
PRODUCTIVITY OF WORD FORMING TYPES OF ENGLISH NEOLOGISMS DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC
UDC: УДК 81’373.611:811.111:616-036.21
Section: PHILOLOGY
Authors: Elena A. Babenkova; Ksenia V. Tetyannikova;
The fact of influence of extra linguistic factors on coining and functioning of new words is thoroughly consid-ered by researchers of neology processes. The importance and validity of this correlation is determined by the social nature of language. The traditional distinction of the types of word formation into major and minor ones can be reconsidered because of the increase in the productivity of a particular word coining pattern due to emerging of some extra linguistic determining factors. Purpose. According to the stated above, the purpose of the present paper is to explore how the pandemic of COVID-19 influenced the fact of introducing new words in-to the English language giving special examination to the process and types of coining new words. Materials and methods. By means of continuous sampling method new words were selected from the authentic on-line dictionaries. The data collected were analysed to reveal their semantic group correlation and the prevailing type of word coining using semantic, word formation and statistical analyses. Research results. The analyses showed the semantic correlation of the newly formed words with COVID-19 and stated blending as the most productive pattern of word formation, which is traditionally considered as a minor type of word coining. Conclusion. The phenomenon of pandemic of COVID-19 turned out to be an important factor influencing semantic and word coining characteristics of new lexical units in English and changed traditional concept of classifying the types of word formation. The phenomenon is worth considering in perspective.
THE CONCEPT OF THE WORLD AND MAN IN THE MORDOVIAN STORY OF THE TURN OF THE XX–XXI CENTURIES
UDC: УДК 82-32(470.345)
Section: PHILOLOGY
Authors: Natalya I. Ermina;
Introduction. The article is devoted to the study of the artistic concept of the world and man in the modern Mordovian story. The purpose of the study is to analyse the specifics of modeling artistic reality, the structuring of the character system and the meaning-forming conceptual concepts that determined them in the works of na-tional authors. Materials and methods. Stories by E. Chetvergov, A. Bryzhinsky, V. Mishanina, T. Bargova were the materials of the study. To achieve the goal, traditional methods of literary research were used (structural-semantic, comparative-comparative, method of holistic text analysis). Results, discussion. The stories of modern Mordovian prose writers reflect the realities and problems of social reality, recreate the image of a contemporary, his relationship with the world, analyze the psychological state, spiritual and moral potential. The picture of the world in their works is a close interweaving of various social conditions, many human destinies and various emotions. Writers conduct a thorough study of human nature, human capacity for change and self-improvement. Each of the authors chooses his own perspective of depicting socio-cultural facts, circumstances, the role of the individual in them, the forms of his self-realization, which is due to the individual author's perception of the world. The common thing is that the world and man are comprehended by the narrators through understanding the system of universal human values, conceptual meaning-containing concepts of motherhood, loneliness, family, gender, labor, femininity/masculinity. Conclusion. The analysis revealed that the stories of Mordovian writers reflect the consciousness of the milestone era – a critical perception of the world, dissatisfaction with the social order, the search for individual and national identity, the meaning of being. The authors' attention is drawn to universal, national spiritual and moral ideals and ideas, value priorities.
MODERN FORMS OF POPULARIZATION OF INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE AT SCHOOL
UDC: УДК 008 (47):37 (045)
Section: PHILOLOGY
Authors: Tatyana A. Zolotova; Mariya N. Pirogova; Sofiya A. Rumyantseva;
The paper examines the issues of popularization of intangible cultural heritage (folklore) at modern schools. It presents the specific experience of the participants of the network educational workshop “Project activities of junior schoolchildren in the area of information and communication technologies in the process of implementa-tion of the “Perspective” Training Module”. The key features of this team’s work include the application of tra-ditional and modern folklore collected and systematized in the Mari El Republic by students and teachers of the Mari State University. Technologically, the distinctive feature of this project is the use of the SAMR model (the shift from substitution and augmentation to modification and redefinition). The authors' focus is modern forms of presentation, such as video reviews, visual novels and games. The paper includes the characterization of the examples of these forms and the detailed description of the creation stages of projects based on the material of folk fairy tales with the application of these forms. The authors conclude that traditional folklore (fairy tales) successfully functions in modern culture (for instance, on TikTok online platform as well as in games and visual novels); its images, ideas, and values get actualized. Another significant tendency is the so-called “personal appropriation”. The assimilation of the classical canonical works in the modern culture results in schoolchildren's mastery of skills and abilities for work with folklore texts (cultural retelling, analysis in the context of new genres and technologies).
LINGUISTIC EXPRESSION OF THE CONCEPT HASS (HATE) IN THE GERMAN-SPEAKING VIRTUAL SPACE
UDC: УДК 81’271:004.946
Section: PHILOLOGY
Authors: Maria A. Ivanova;
Introduction. The ways of conceptualization and realization of interpersonal relations are being transformed as a result of the rapid development and mass distribution of virtual communications, which is reflected in the lan-guage. The purpose of the paper is the study of the ways of hostility verbalization in the German-speaking vir-tual space by the example of negative comments in chat-communication and the analysis of linguistic means, objectifying the conceptual and figurative components of the cultural concept HASS (hate), which allows us to see the processes of concept transformation in virtual space. Materials and methods. Such methods as lexicographic, semantic and concept analysis are used in the paper in the field of lin-guocultural approach to concept understanding. In order to study the components of the concept HASS lexico-graphic sources and magazine articles dealing with the topic of hostility in Internet communication published no earlier than 2015, as well as negative comments published in the public domain on such social networks as Twitter, YouTube and Instagram are analysed. Research results, discussion. Chat communication is shown to become rougher due to its distance, anonymity and the physical non-representation of communicators. This is reflected in the more frequent use of swearwords and in addressing people using the second-person singular form. The changes in the concept HASS under the influence of virtual communication are also demonstrated, which are manifested on its notional and image levels through the appearance of new lexemes, English loan-words and new metaphorical models. Conclusion. We can speak about global changes in the conceptualization of hostility, caused by the active use of virtual communication, which is reflected in the language
THE POEMS OF HASAN TUFAN IN THE HISTORICAL AND LITERARY CONTEXT OF THE SECOND HALF OF THE 1920S
UDC: УДК 821.512.145
Section: PHILOLOGY
Authors: Leysan R. Nadyrshina;
Introduction. The article is devoted to the study of a number of poems by H. Tufan, created in the mid-1920s. Purpose. The aim of the research is to analyze the poems of H. Tufan from the point of view of themes, prob-lems and poetics. Materials and methods. The poems “Yellar itagenda” (“On the threshold of years”, 1925), “Bashlana bashlady” (“It Began”, 1927), “Bibievlar” (“Bibievs”, 1927) were the materials for the analysis. To achieve this goal, cultural-historical, hermeneutical methods were used, using contextual and cultural principles. Results, discussion. The poems of H. Tufan, created in the second half of the 1920s, according to many re-searchers of Tatar literature (M. Gainutdinov, R. Sabirov, R. Mustafin, etc.) form a single cycle. They reflect one of the key features of the genre evolution of the Tatar poem during this period – the attraction to epization, due to the desire to reflect the process of creating a new world. Focusing on the problem-thematic (the poems are dominated by the theme of labor and the problem of class inequality) and motivational (the key themes in the works are the motives of building a new world, struggle, unity, etc.) features traditional for this period of literary development, the poet, on the other hand, creates texts open to various interpretations, which allows us to assert the relevance of the Soviet stage of his work to this day. Conclusion. In the course of the analysis of H. Tufan’s works, the key features characteristic of the author's epic poems created under the conditions of ideological reg-ulation and characterizing the main artistic and figurative solutions of Tatar literature as a whole are highlighted.
NARRATIVE STRATEGIES OF CONTEMPORARY PROSE FOR ADOLESCENTS: COMPOSITIONAL POLYPHONISM IN THE NOVEL “THE GREY HOUSE” BY M. PETROSYAN
UDC: УДК 821.161.1
Section: PHILOLOGY
Authors: Natalya V. Svitenko;
Introduction. The analytics of the “storytelling event” in the novel “The Grey House” by M. Petrosyan, associ-ated with such questions as “who sees?” (directs the focal perspective) and “who talks?” (talks about what he sees), leads to the formulation of the problem of the correspondence of “storytelling” and “composition”. Pur-pose. The article examines the ways of organizing a narrative discourse and the author's technique of narrative representation of a teenage hero within the framework of a “large form”. Materials and methods. The methodo-logical toolkit of narratology makes it possible to draw conclusions about the peculiarities of the subject organ-ization of the novel, which has received the status of “cult” in modern prose for adolescents. The methodology for analyzing the narrative strategies of the novel discussed in the work is based on the following categories of modern narratology: “point of view” (B. A. Uspensky), “focalization” (J. Genette), “narrative transformations” (W. Schmidt). The results of the study, discussion. The combination of the direct author's narration, free indirect speech (in several chapters the subject of speech does not coincide with the point of view bearer) and the speech of the narrating character (in some chapters the functions of the narrator and focalizer are given to the charac-ters) in two storylines, built on the principle of counterpoint, can be named by the term “compositional polyphonism”. The peculiarity of the model of compositional polyphonism, realized in the novel, lies in a cer-tain status of the author in prose for adolescents – the author is the carrier of the objective values of being in a non-relational picture of the world from the ethical side. Conclusion. The counterpoint of subjective points of view on one event in storylines of different time periods allows the author of the novel to contrast the levels of consciousness of the heroes and the methods of perception corresponding to these levels. It also allows to create a stereoscopic picture of reality, realized in the perspective of a mono-subject narration.
MYTHOLOGISM OF ASTRAL IMAGES OF THE SUN AND THE MOON IN MODERN TATAR LITERATURE
UDC: УДК 821
Section: PHILOLOGY
Authors: Ruslan Z. Khairullin; Ramil Kh. Sharyafetdinov;
Introduction. Astral images of the Sun and the Moon, which are an integral part of the worldview and mytholo-gy of the Turkic peoples, are reflected not only in folklore, but also in the author's Tatar literature at almost all stages of its development. Of particular interest is the archaic symbolism of celestial bodies, as well as new meanings characteristic of the works of modern Tatar literature. Purpose. Analysis of the symbolism of astral mythology images in the works of literature in the Tatar and Russian languages at the present stage of its development. Materials and methods. The research material is the works of modern Tatar prose in Tatar (M. Magdeev, R. Zaidulla, N. Gimatdinova, F. Gilmi, F. Khusni, R. Mukhamadiev, M. Valeev, etc.) and in Rus-sian (I. Abuzyarov, Sh. Idiatullin). The main research methods are comparative, analytical, textological. Re-search results, discussion. In the process of studying the works of modern Tatar literature, both the traditional symbolism of the images of celestial bodies in the history of Tatar literature (the meaning of life and death, mag-ic and mystery, symbols of power and wealth, etc.), but also the particular meanings of the works of modernity (the symbol of wisdom, new life, care, dreams, longing, loneliness, etc.) are revealed. Conclusion. As a result of the research, the author comes to the conclusion that the analysis of the images of the Sun and the Moon in modern Tatar literature, on the one hand, is characterized by traditional meanings for the history of Tatar litera-ture, on the other – by new meanings and symbols, which is conditioned by the laws of the literary process of the peoples of Russia and the peculiarities of the authors’ individuality.
SLAVIC LEXICAL PARALLELS TO THE GERMAN SOMATISM ZUNGE “LANGUAGE” IN A COMPARATIVE-HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
UDC: УДК 81'374.4
Section: PHILOLOGY
Authors: Tatiana F. Sheshkina;
Introduction. The lexical parallels in question are units of the active vocabulary. Being inherently somatisms, the correlates over time have come to denote language as a sign system and speech. The study of the Germanic-Slavic lexical parallels Zunge – language in the comparative-historical perspective allows us to identify their in-herent structural-linguistic changes and semantic transformations in the diachronic perspective. Purpose: to ex-plore Germanic-Slavic lexical parallels in etymological, structural-linguistic and lexical-semantic aspects, involv-ing etymological and linguocultural data. Materials and methods. The theoretical basis of the work was the sci-entific data recorded in lexicographic sources of domestic and foreign linguists. In the course of research work, methods of continuous sampling, generalization, comparison and component analysis were used. Discussion and results. The first written evidence of Zunge in the Germanic language field dates back to the 8th century, in the Slavic – to the 10th century. Russian and foreign linguists have not developed a common point of view on the reconstruction of the Indo-European substrate of the Proto-Slavic base *e̜zykъ and the Germanic base *tungōn. The semantic scope of the Russian and German lexemes in question is different in width. In the course of the study a high quantitativity of the implementation of Germanic-Slavic correlates Zunge – language as components of phytonyms and zoonyms was noted. The analysis of lexical parallels is given with the involve-ment of phraseological data. Conclusion. The study of the Germanic-Slavic parallels Zunge – language re-vealed both common and different characteristics for them in the aspect of their functional-language and lexi-cal-semantic features. The importance of studying the Germanic-Slavic parallels in determining the nature and chronology of the ways of penetration of lexical units from one language into another is highlighted.
SPECIFICITY OF THE DESCRIPTION OF THE TENSE CATEGORY IN JEAN MASSET’S FRENCH GRAMMAR (1606)
UDC: УДК 81-112.2
Section: PHILOLOGY
Authors: Andrei Yu. Shcherbinin;
Introduction. This article focuses on the specificity of the tense category description of the French language in Jean Masset’s elementary grammar (1606). The article aims to examine the grammatical category of tense as one of the canonic categories that were ambiguously presented in the early descriptions of the French language. Purpose. The purpose of this article is to analyze the following aspects of the tense category description in the studied grammar: the specificity of the description of the French verb and its tense system, the reflection of the language norm and usage in the description of this category, the implementation of the exemplification princi-ple regarding this category. Materials and methods. Jean Masset’s French grammar (1606) acted as the research material. The choice of this grammar is due to its genre of an elementary textbook which requires more detailed consideration in studies on Historiography of Linguistics. The method of comprehensive study of the triad “sys-tem – norm − usage” was used as the key one in this research. The interpretive method aimed at the identifica-tion of the main ideas concerning the category of the French verb tense through the content of the source has been widely applied. Research results. As a result, the aspects of the language norm and usage regarding the tense category are of great importance in Masset’s grammar. The article shows that the grammar author followed the principles of analogy and linguistic relativity when describing this category. Conclusion. The principles of the tense category description in Masset’s grammar are due to its belonging to the genre of elementary text-books. The results of the research contribute to the study of the categorical level of description in French gram-mar textbooks at the turn of the XVI−XVII centuries.
90 YEARS SINCE THE BIRTH OF DMITRY EGOROVICH KAZANTSEV
UDC:
Section:
Authors: Elvira I. Peksheeva;
В 2022 году марийское научно-педагогическое сообщество отмечает 90-летие со дня рождения известного советского и рос-сийского лингвиста-финно-угроведа, доктора филологических наук (1989), профессора (1992), заслуженного деятеля науки Марийской ССР (1991), заслуженного работника высшей школы РФ (2012), отличника народного про-свещения (1981), Почетного работника высше-го профессионального образования РФ (2011) Дмитрия Егоровича Казанцева. Родился он 20 февраля 1932 года в деревне Мустаево Сернурского района Марийской АССР. В 1947 году окончил Мустаевскую не-полную среднюю школу, затем в 1948 году без вступительных экзаменов был зачислен на пер-вый курс Сернурского педагогического учи-лища. После окончания училища с отличием в 1952–1953 учебном году работал учителем в Нижнекугенерской непол¬ной средней школе Сернурского района. В 1953 году Д. Е. Казанцева без вступительных экзаменов приняли на марийское отделение историко-филологического факультета Марийского госу-дарственного педагогического института им. Н. К. Крупской, после окончания которого в 1958 году он работал учителем русского язы-ка и литературы, марийского языка и литерату-ры в Сернурской средней школе. С 1959 по 1961 год Д. Е. Казанцев – аспирант при кафед-ре марийского языка и литературы МГПИ им. Н. К. Крупской. С 1961 по 1972 год рабо-тал в Марийском научно-исследовательском институте языка, литературы и истории им. В. М. Васильева: сначала в должности младшего научного сотрудника, старшего научного сотрудника и заведующего сектором языка. С 1 октября 1972 года Дмитрий Его-рович начал заниматься преподавательской де-ятельностью в Марийском государственном педагогическом институте им. Н. К. Крупс¬кой. В 1975–1979 годах – проректор по заочному обучению, в 1982–1985 годах – заведующий кафедрой русского языка, с апреля 1992 года по 2007 год – заведующий кафедрой общего и сравнительного языкознания. В Марийском государственном университете после объеди-нения его с пединститутом проработал до сен-тября 2012 года преподавателем лингвистиче-ских дисциплин. Начало научной деятельности Дмит-рия Егоровича связано с городом Тарту (Эсто-ния) – в 1965 году защитил в Тартуском уни-верситете кандидатскую диссертацию на тему «Фонетические особенности йошкар-олинского говора марийского языка». Научный руководитель – кандидат филологических наук, профессор Н. Т. Пенгитов. При исследовании в центре внимания Д. Е. Ка¬занцева находилось решение следующих задач: 1) установить состав фонем йошкар-олинского говора марийского языка; 2) выявить специфи-ку в их употреблении; 3) описать основные из-менения звуков в речевом потоке. Уже в этой работе проявились лучшие стороны научной деятельности Д. Е. Казанцева: глубокое внима-ние к специфике объекта исследования, все-сторонний анализ диалектных фактов, крити-ческое отношение к науч¬ным предположениям и другое. В начале 1960-х и после защиты диссертации научные интере-сы Д. Е. Казанцева были связаны с фонетикой марийского языка: «Состав гласных фонем йошкар-олинского говора марийского языка» (1961), «К истории некоторых согласных зву-ков в йошкар-олинском говоре марийского языка», «Редуцированные гласные в йошкар-олинском говоре марийского языка» (1964), «О некоторых фонетических изменениях в марий-ском языке» (1967), «К истории глухих смыч-ных и звонких слабосмычных согласных в ма-рийском языке» (1976) и многие другие. Классические процедуры сравнительно-исторического языкознания и приемы ареаль-ной лингвистики нашли свое последовательное применение в его монографии «Истоки финно-угорского родства» (1979). В данной работе, получившей высокую оценку как у нас в стране, так и за рубежом, исследуются древ-нейшие периоды жизни финно-угорских наро-дов. Важным этапом в научной деятельности Д. Е. Казанцева является выход в 1985 году монографии «Формирование диалектов марий-ского языка. (В связи с происхождением ма-рийцев)», в которой, используя материалы смежных с языкознанием наук – археологии, этнографии и истории, обосновал свой вывод об основных вехах развития марийского языка и его местных разновидностей со II–III вв. до XVIII века. Это фундаментальное исследование легло в основу его докторской диссертации «Историческая диалекто¬логия марийского язы-ка (Образование диалектов и сравнительно-историческое описание их фонетики)», успеш-но защищенной в 1989 году в Тартуском уни-верситете (Эстония). Другую линию научной деятельности Дмит-рия Егоровича представляют исследования в области лексикологии и этимологии. Еще в го-ды работы в МарНИИ он изучал историческое развитие лексики марийского языка. Его ос-новные понятия по этому вопросу изложены в книге «Современный марийский язык. Лекси-кология» (1972), написанной в соавторстве с Г. С. Пат¬ру¬шевым. В ней впервые в марийском языкознании рассмотрена лексика современно-го марийского языка с точки зрения ее истори-ческого развития, сферы употребления, актив-ностью и пассивностью использования. Этимо-логическим изысканиям посвящены статьи «Этимологии некоторых марийских слов» (1965), «Об иранских заимствованиях в финно-угорских языках» (1986), «К вопросу о месте и времени проникновения иранских слов в древнемарийский язык» (1980) и другие. В конце 1990-х годов Д. Е. Казанцев начал исследования историко-типоло¬гичес¬ких про-блем языка. В 2010 году увидела свет его мо-нография «Типологии и универсалии языков. История и современное состояние. Ч. I. Синхрония», посвященная 200-летию ти-пологии языков. Этим исследованием Д. E. Казанцев внес значительный вклад в об-щую науку о языке. Среди трудов Д. Е. Казанцева особое место занимает книга «Республика Марий Эл. Сер-нурский район: прошлое и настоящее. Истори-ко-лингвистический очерк» (1999), которая по-священа 250-летию поселка Сернур. В ней рассказывается об истории освоения террито-рии Сернурского района марийцами и русским населением; анализируется процесс формиро-вания местных диалектов марийского и русско-го языков и характеризуется ряд их фонетиче-ских, лексических и грамматических особенно-стей; рассматриваются модели образования географических названий и дается классифи-кация местной и русской топонимии; описыва-ется специфика этнических, культурно-бытовых взаимоотно¬шений марийского и рус-ского народов. Д. Е. Казанцев завоевал научный авторитет не только в финно-угорском мире, но и среди тюркологов. В журнале «Советское финно-угроведение» (1966) он отозвался об исследо-вании чувашского языковеда М. Р. Федотова «Исторические связи чувашского языка с язы-ками финно-угров Поволжья и Перми» (Чебок-сары, 1965). Рецензия была встречена мариве-дами, чувашеведами и пермистами восторжен-но. Впоследствии Д. Е. Казанцев стал членом диссертационного совета при Марийском, Чу-вашском и Удмуртском университетах. Сохранился у Д. Е. Казанцева на протяже-нии его научной и преподавательской деятель-ности и преимущественный интерес к особен-ностям русских говоров, распространенных на территории Марийского края, и их контактам с диалектами марийского языка. Как профессор кафедры русского языка, а затем общего и сравнительного языкознания МГПИ, он издал в 2003 году книгу «Русские говоры Республики Марий Эл». Она написана на основе материа-лов, собранных студентами Марийского госу-дарственного педагогического института им. Н. К. Крупской во время ежегодно прово-димой диалектологической практики. В ней дано системное описание фонетических, мор-фологических, синтаксических и лексических особенностей русских говоров. Несомненный интерес в этом пособии представляют марийские заимствова-ния в диалектной лексике. Вопросы заимство-вания в марийском языке отражены в ряде ста-тей: «К истории некоторых русских заимство-ваний в марийском языке» (2007), «Косвенные русские заимствования в марийском языке» (2007, в соавт.). Кроме того, Д. Е. Казанцев интересовался проблемами обозначения множественности и написал несколько работ по данному вопросу: «К истории суффикса множественного числа − шамыч в марийском языке» (2007), «К вопросу о происхождении суффиксов − влӓк и влӓ в ма-рийском языке» (2008), «К истории суффикса -мыт (-мӹт) в марийском языке» (2008) и дру-гие. Д. Е. Казанцев также обращался к пробле-ме двуязычия в Республике Марий Эл, опубли-ковав несколько статей («Двуязычие в РМЭ: современное состояние и проблемы» (1993), «Место марийского языка в условиях билинг-визма» (1995). Находясь на заслуженном отдыхе, Дмит-рий Егорович продолжал заниматься наукой. Несколько научно-исследовательских статей посвятил актуальным проблемам марийского языка: «Диахронические универсалии в обла-сти словообразования» (2012), «Некоторые мысли о суффиксах множественного числа в марийском языке» (2013), «К теории слово-сложения» (2014) и другие. В 2021 году, будучи в преклонном возрасте, написал свою очередную книгу – «Картина ми-ра в языке: книга для любителей астрономии и лингвистики», в которой Д. Е. Казанцев обоб-щил представление специалистов по астроно-мии о космосе, также сосредоточил внимание на способе образования названий небесных тел, на их роли в процессе обогащения словар-ного состава языков разных систем (русский, прибалтийско-финские (финский, эстонский), волжские (мокша, эрзя, марийский), пермские (коми, удмуртский), поволжские тюркские (чу-вашский, татарский, башкирский). Такой под-ход взаимно обогащает и объединяет обе науки, весьма отдаленные друг от друга по ма-териалам и методологии их исследования. Д. Е. Казанцевым написано более 80 иссле-довательских работ, среди них восемь – от-дельными книгами. Участвовал в работе четы-рех международных конгрессов, нескольких всесоюзных и зональных конференций по во-просам финно-угроведения. Марийское языкознание за годы научной деятельности Д. Е. Казанцева поднялось на бо-лее высокий теоретический и международный уровни. Своими глубокими научными изыска-ниями прославил марийскую науку в глазах мирового финно-угроведения. Дмитрий Егорович Казанцев оставил в ма-рийской и всей финно-угорской науке глубокий след как талантливый исследователь, имеющий необычайно широкий диапазон в разнообраз-ных отраслях языкознания, одинаково компе-тентно и оригинально решающий многие вопросы финно-угроведения и марийского языкознания, внесший немало нового и важно-го. В отечественном языкознании его имя занимает особое место. Д. Е. Казанцев скончался 20 июня 2021 го-да.