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VESTNIK 2(34) 2019
Date publication on the site:
2019-06-14 13:58:18
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UDC: 37.01
Authors: Alina Kh. Akhmedyanova;
The article presents the author's interpretation of cross-cultural humanitarian education, which should be gradually introduced into the school system as an effective model of the formation of a harmoniously developed personality of a student meeting the requirements of our multinational Russian society. The study was conducted in the Bashkir Lyceum №1 of the town of Uchaly of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The purpose of the study is the identification of effective forms of interaction between curricular and extracurricular activities as the basis for the formation of a harmoniously developed personality of a student. Materials and methods of the study were: the study of literature on the research topic, the author’s pedagogical experience, the analysis of classes held in schools, theoretical and practical modeling of cross-cultural humanitarian education. The results of the study showed the effective and productive-creative interaction of History lessons with the activities of the historical circle in the context of cross-cultural humanitarian education in schools. Such a process of interaction in the educational environment of school is directly aimed at the formation of a harmoniously developed personality of a student by involving him/ her in various creative activities aimed directly at ethno-cultural interaction, mutual exchange and at obtaining a certain cultural experience, during which a developed sense of tolerance, respect and humane intercultural relations are formed. In its turn, tolerance, respect, and humane intercultural relations are among the main spiritual and moral qualities of a harmoniously developed personality, developed on the basis of the values of the peoples of the Russian Federation, on the basis of the historical and nationalcultural traditions of a particular ethnic group. Conclusions. Therefore, it is possible to obtain such a model of personality only in the educational environment, which should be based on the cultural and historical principle laid down on the basis of cross-cultural humanitarian education.
UDC: 373.545
Authors: Valerij A. Belyanin; Alena I. Isaeva;
The article is devoted to the actual problem of improving the quality of teaching physics to secondary school students. The author's approach to this problem solution by means of allocation of physical situations from educational material and their studying by students is given. The article clarifies the concept of a physical situation as an object of research, provides an analysis and directions of the use of physical situations for the organization of educational and research work of students in physics. The authors define the physical situation as a system of external conditions in relation to any physical object selected by the subject that is involved in one or more physical phenomena. The state of an object or a change in its state can be described by laws corresponding to these phenomena, which may include certain physical quantities. The article deals with the content aspect of the physical situation, including objectively existing or subjectively selected object and its environment: phenomenon, model, magnitude, law and physical processes. The authors demonstrate that the physical situation is a system structure, allocated by the subject with a certain didactic purpose, for example, to study its structure and structural components as theories, models, laws, physical quantities and physical processes. The article provides specific examples of the allocation and sequence of students studying the physical situation under the guidance of a teacher in a physics lesson. As an object of study for the construction and analysis of a specific physical situation, a spring is chosen, the model of which is traditionally considered in physics when students study elastic bodies. The sequence of activity of the teacher and the student in the analysis of the selected physical situation “Elasticity of bodies” is shown. It is noted that physical quantities for describing the phenomenon of spring deformation are related by Hooke's law. The process in this physical situation is the change in the linear dimensions of the object – the spring. The authors analyzed the content aspect of the physical situation “Elasticity of bodies”. In the conclusions of the article it is noted that the work of students with physical situations, their allocation and analysis, it is desirable to carry out after studying the relevant topics and sections of physics, when summarizing the physical material, which will activate the work of students and organize creative cooperation between teacher and student in the study of physics.
UDC: 378.881.116.11
Authors: Svetlana Yu. Vylegzhanina;
Nowadays, the necessity to shift the emphasis from theoretical to practice-oriented training in teaching students of pedagogical specialties is widly discussed. Project activity is considered to be one of the most effective tools that form students' specific practical skills and abilities and develop personal qualities. The article presents the experience of organizing project activities of students of Vyatka State University. The purpose of the study is to identify problems encountered by students involved in project activities and to suggest possible ways to solve them. The research methods are theoretical (analysis of the literature on the research problem) and practical (survey, observation, analysis of empirical experience). Results of research, discussion. The low level of students’ motivation to implement the project activities was revealed. The difficulties that have arisen during the organization of students' project activities are described: in analyzing the problem situation, in formulating contradictions and problems, in setting goals for different types of projects, in determining educational results, in allocating temporary resources and in self-control. The low level of students' creativity, as well as difficulties in team building, due to the subjective approach to the organization of project groups. The ways of solving the difficulties are proposed. The obtained data are compared with the estimates of the practice of students' project activities described in the scientific works of recent years. Conclusion. Conclusions are drawn on the need for a holistic approach to the methodology of teaching project activities to students-teachers, on adhering to the principles of systematic, consistent, increasing the level of complexity of projects with the accumulation of relevant experience; it is said about the obligatory provision of methodological support at all project stages, switching the roles of the subject and object of training, mandatory implementation of future teachers’ projects.
UDC: 373.1
Authors: Lidiya G. Iksanova; Svetlana N. Fedorova;
The activity of the school as a General educational organization requires full organizational, resource and methodological support to solve the tasks not only of training, education and development of students, but also of the satisfaction of their language rights and ethno-cultural needs. Security should be in accordance with Federal state educational standards, normative-legal, sanitary, social, fire-fighting, anti-terrorist, anti-sabotage and other requirements. The National Presidential Boarding School of the Republic of Mari El provides all the necessary conditions for the implementation of educational activities, including organizational, resource and methodological support to satisfy the language rights and ethno-cultural needs of students. The most important problem at the moment is the problem of providing educational and methodological, financial and economic resources to the activities of the educational organization in this direction. Purpose: theoretical development and experimental testing of the model of organizational, resource and methodological support of the educational organization on the satisfaction of language rights and ethno-cultural needs of students in the conditions of the National presidential school. Materials and methods. In accordance with the goals and objectives of the study the following research methods were used: theoretical methods (system analysis of the research problem, structural and functional analysis of school educational environment, analysis of educational standards, curricula, theoretical generalization of research results), empirical methods (observation, conversation, questionnaire, pedagogical experiment), statistical methods (methods of mathematical data processing). The study materials were educational programs, protocols of the pedagogical councils, certificate issuance journals, class journals and other school documentation of the National Presidential Boarding School of the Republic of Mari El and the National Presidential School of Arts. Results, discussion. Based on monitoring data (from 2016 to 2019) of the attitude of students, teachers and parents to the solution of problems of the satisfaction of language rights and ethno-cultural needs of students, it was concluded that the organizational, resource and methodological support of the National Presidential Boarding School meets all the requirements and is an important indicator of school development prospects. Conclusion. At the present stage of development of multicultural society in the functioning of schools with ethno-cultural composition of particular importance are the issues of development of scientific, methodological and methodical content of General education on ethno-cultural and bicultural basis, based on the one hand, on human values, and on the other – on nationalcultural and regional-ethnic traditions. The solution of these issues requires the development and implementation of effective mechanisms of management of the pedagogical process of ethno-cultural orientation and its full organizational, resource and methodological support.
UDC: 327:304.44
Authors: Pavel S. Kozlov; Svetlana A. Romanova; Mariya S. Romanova;
Volunteering as institution of civil society is becoming increasingly active in modern Russia, including the student community, and it solves a whole range of social problems – from organizing leisure activities for children, adolescents and young people, including them in active activities, to providing social assistance to those in need, carrying out prevention of harmful habits, care for homeless animals, etc. The forms of volunteering are also varied: individual volunteering, work in unregistered associations and groups, as well as in registered organizations with any form of ownership. Currently, it is important to search for strategies for interaction and information exchange in the field of volunteering both at the national and international levels. The purpose of this article is to show the possibility and importance of including Russian volunteers in international volunteer activities. Materials and methods. Based on the analysis of scientific literature, statistical data and comparative analysis of the activities through Russian and European volunteer movements, the authors show that the rapid changes taking place in modern society require constant modernization in the field of volunteering, which is becoming more and more multi-format and multi-level, global, its traditional forms are constantly supplemented with brand new ones. Results, discussion. The authors conclude that for the effective development of this type of social citizen activity it is necessary, on the one hand, to study the international experience of volunteering, which has a long history, and on the other hand, the active involvement of Russian volunteers in the international volunteer movement. Conclusion. This statement takes on a special meaning, as in the context of ongoing globalization, international cooperation of volunteers from different countries will help to solve common problems more effectively (for example, related to assistance to victims of natural disasters in different parts of the world), and will also contribute to a positive image of Russian volunteering.
UDC: 378.2
Authors: Olga S. Krylova; Dmitry A. Krylov;
References, lists of literature, bibliographic lists are an important element of both academic (abstract, course and diploma work) and scientific (article, thesis) work. The experience of bibliography design according to GOST is necessary for the author of scientific research. From July 1, 2019 the new GOST-7.0.100-2018comes into force, which raises the following questions: what will change in the design of the list of references, for whom is the new GOST and does it cancel the old ones? Purpose: to consider the optimal and at the same time not distorting the main purpose of the bibliographic list of scientific work design options for state standards for information, librarianship and publishing. The purpose is specified in the following tasks: to understand the differences between the existing GOSTs from the point of view of the compiler of the list of references in the scientific study, to give comments on the controversial points of the existing GOSTs on the bibliographical description. Methods: theoretical and methodological analysis, systematization and generalization of pedagogical, scientific-methodical, normative-legal data on the problem under study, use of a complex of interrelated theoretical research methods corresponding to the subject of the research and the tasks set. Discussions. We consider the standards of library and publishing on the bibliographical description, most often used in modern scientific works, highlights controversial issues. Conclusion. The purpose of the list of references is to document and substantiate the authenticity and accuracy of the facts, statistical data, quotations and other information borrowed from various sources given in the text of the work, thereby observing the ethics of scientific publications; show the depth of elaboration of the problem; provide the reader with the opportunity to quickly search for a study of interest from the list. In drawing up the list of references, it is necessary first of all to be guided by the requirements of the structural unit under whose guidance the work is performed.
UDC: 378.2
Authors: Sergey Yu. Lavrentiev; Dmitry A. Krylov;
At present, the formation of pedagogical consulting is influenced by the complex processes of reforming the education system, characteristic of the post-industrial stage of development of the knowledgebased economy. These processes are defined in the target projects of innovative development of Russia until 2020, the spatial development of the Russian Federation until 2025, and others. The purpose of the article is to determine the totality and reveal the basic conceptual apparatus associated with the development and implementation of innovative technologies of pedagogical consulting in organizations of higher education based on the identified main vectors of consulting development in Russia and abroad. Materials and methods. The study was carried out on the basis of the Faculty of General and Vocational Education of the Mari State University. To achieve this goal, the following theoretical methods were used (conceptual and terminological analysis, content analysis of psychological and pedagogical, social and economic literature reflecting the identification of innovative educational consulting technologies; functional analysis of the use of innovative educational consulting technologies in various fields). As empirical methods - pedagogical observation, conversation and sociological questionnaire with the use of innovative technology LMS Moodle were used. Pedagogical consulting in our understanding is a system of qualified assistance and professional support in the development of personal and professional competencies (knowledge, skills) in order to meet the educational needs of man, society and the state. The following innovative technologies can be used to train consultants, tutors, and mentors who carry out pedagogical counseling at a higher educational institution: tutor support for designing an individual educational trajectory; coaching when conducting professionally directed debates; moderation during business games; supervision in the process of searching, analyzing and developing the best solutions through the evaluation of alternative ideas and actions.
UDC: 811.111:316.48
Authors: Elina I. Murtazina;
The urgency of this topic is in the need of developing the conflict resolution skills of the future professionals at the present time, especially of those whose profession is related to the communication with people. The effective development of such skills depends on applying the set of active teaching methods at the foreign language classes which help to activate the students’ cognitive abilities, to create a creative environment and spirit of competitiveness, to develop associative thinking and break the language barrier. Purpose. The aim of the research is to develop students’ conflict resolution skills with the help of chosen didactic material distributed in three modules and active teaching methods; to monitor the dynamic of these skills developed. Materials and methods. The analysis of pedagogy literature on assessing diagnostics of students’ conflict behavior and pedagogical modelling served as theoretical methods; questioning with the use of Thomas – Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument and observation served as empirical methods. Results, discussion. The implementation of chosen didactic material on the conflicts theory as the group work using the active teaching methods (team work, video materials, roleplay, brainstorm) contributed to students’ step-by-step learning the conflicts nature, forming the skills of their effective resolution, increasing motivation for learning English. The additional questioning at the end of the experiment revealed the positive dynamics of these skills’ development in experimental groups (namely, decreasing the number of students with “avoiding” style, increasing the number of ones who choose the constructive ways of conflict resolution, “compromising” and “collaborating”). The observation results testify to the presence of self-control, empathy and critical thinking skills. Conclusion. The practical significance of the research is reflected in the possibility of using the obtained results on the next stages of students’ professional development while improving their negotiating skills being the effective method of conflict resolution.
UDC: 929:[811+37+39](470+571)«18»Бичурин
Authors: Eduard V. Nikolaev; Tatiana N. Petrova;
This article is devoted to the study of the ethno-pedagogical and sociocultural factors of the formation of N. Y. Bichurin’s personality and the formation of his worldview as a scientist who has made a great contribution to the study of history and culture of Eastern countries. Purpose: on the basis of historiographical literature and archival and documentary sources, to study the ethno-pedagogical and sociocultural factors of the formation of N. Y. Bichurin’s personality and to give a description of the first – the Kazan stage of the formation of his scientific and socio-philosophical worldview. In the process of research the following tasks were solved: to determine the political and sociocultural factors of the birth of the first church schools and theological seminaries in the Middle Volga region and to reveal the features of organization of their educational work, the everyday life of students of the Kazan Theological Seminary, among whom the personality of young Nikita was formed. Materials and methods: the consideration of the studied problem is based on the factual evidence of pre-revolutionary historiography, autobiographical materials, on the principles of historicism, descriptiveness, objectivity, on the methods of summary of facts and phenomena, historical modeling, retrospective analysis of historical documents in their totality and interconnection and in the context of general political and sociocultural, including educational processes, which allowed to make an extensive complete and specific historical analysis of development and formation of N. Y. Bichurin’s personality in the everyday life of students in the Sviyazhsk Church School and the Kazan Theological Seminary in conjunction with objectively influencing it historical conditions and subjective factors. The theoretical and practical importance lies in the fact that the results of the research can be used in the creation of textbooks on school development and education in the Middle Volga region, in the educational process when considering the importance of historical figures in the development of science and culture, the actualization of their scientific and philosophical worldviews for reconstruction in modern sociocultural and educational practice, in the preparation of general works on national history, the history of the Russian Orthodox Church and theological education. The materials of the work can also be used in the process of reforming modern theological seminaries. The scientific novelty of the research consists, primarily, in the actualization of Bichurin’s educational and socio-philosophical ideas in the context of modernization processes in the system of Orthodox education in Russia and the evolution of state-church relations, the modern inter-civilizational dialogue of cultures. Conclusion. The study of autobiographical information of N. Y. Bichurin and a retrospective analysis of his life activity makes it possible to say that his personality as a scientist and the formation of his worldview took place in the surrounding ethno-pedagogical space (microenvironment: rural family and community labor traditions, informal schools of life – street, yard, communication, joint work with adults, etc.) and cultural and educational environment (pedagogical space in educational institutions – Sviyazhsk Church School and Kazan Theological Seminary), where an active formation of Nikita Bichurin as a person took place.
UDC: 377.8
Authors: Naima Si Naser; Elena V. Kondratenko;
The problem of training teachers for national schools is central to the education systems of the Maghreb countries. The article presents the study results of the development of professional teacher training system in Algeria. The aim of the study is to identify the main trends of the genesis of the Algerian national system of continuous pedagogical education. The main research methods are comparative historical analysis, generalization of the theory and practice of the development of teacher training in Algeria. The authors highlight the main stages of development of the Algerian education system as a whole, starting from the pre-Islamic period: pre-colonial (until 1848), colonial (1848–1962), de-colonial (1962–2003) and modern (since 2003), specify the problems, identify the driving forces and determinants of the development of the vocational training system within each of the selected stages. Special attention is paid to the changes in the education system of Algeria, which occurred after the recognition of the country's independence in 1962. A systematic theoretical and methodological analysis of the problem of state activity in the field of pedagogical education as the main determinants of the modernization of the national education system in Algeria is carried out, and the social and managerial characteristics of this process are identified. The result of the study is the identification of the following main trends in the development of the national system of vocational training of Algerian teachers at the present stage: the continuity of teacher education, the variation in educational trajectories, the modernization of the content and technologies of teacher education, the improvement of its quality, increase in the distance education segment. At the same time, the authors emphasize the importance of achieving the modern quality of pedagogical education, ensuring its compliance with the current and future needs of the individual, society and the state based on a combination of innovative strategies and constructive traditions of the national Algerian education.
UDC: 372.851+378.147
Authors: Albina А. Temerbekova;
The article presents a new approach to teaching students - an adaptive system of teaching mathematics, using algorithmic schemes, which allows composing educational material in accordance with a specific algorithm for studying mathematical objects or their properties. Introduction. Modernization of the Russian education, the requirements of the National Doctrine of Education of the Russian Federation until 2025 revealed a complex of problems associated with the professional training of qualified specialists, including mathematics. One of the ways to improve the quality of mathematical training of future specialists at the present stage is the purposeful formation of students’ algorithmic culture, which is a necessary condition and means of professional training of a future specialist. The use of algorithmic schemes in the process of teaching mathematics to university students contributes to the development of algorithmic culture and the formation of professional orientation of the future specialist. Purpose: to determine the effectiveness of the implementation of an adaptive system of teaching students mathematics using algorithmic schemes by assessing the dynamics of its development. Materials and methods. To determine the level of students’ algorithmic culture as a result of the use of an adaptive system of teaching mathematics, indicators of the university students' level of training, the ability to build algorithmic schemes for constructing mathematical theories, the ability to use them in educational activities were used. Results, discussion. The solution of training tasks in the framework of an adaptive teaching system using algorithmic schemes contributed to the development of skills to use project activities in the construction of certain algorithms. Analysis of survey results revealed a positive trend in the level of students’ training in the educational process using algorithmic schemes. Conclusion. The use of an adaptive system of teaching students mathematics with the help of algorithmic schemes contributes to improving the quality of education and the development of professional competence, which proves the success of the experiment.
UDC: 398.89
Authors: Lubov A. Abukaeva;
In Mari family-ritual folklore, songs are a special means of organizing ceremonial activities associated with the reception of guests. The performance of a certain guest song initiates the actions of both the hosts and guests, determines their behavior. The purpose of this work is to describe typical guesthood situations, represented in the lyrics of Mari guest songs, to reveal the songs functions. Materials and methods. The object of the research is the lyrics collected by the author of the article in 1989–2019. To achieve the stated goal, a descriptive method was used, as well as a contextological analysis and elements of the comparative method. The results of the study, discussion. Mari's guest songs continue to function today, playing the role of a peculiar way of communication. As a kind of sociocultural communication and as a result of a product of creative activity and improvisation, the guest song organizes a dialogue that is built according to its own laws. Meeting guests (with gratitude for the coming = arrival), their treats (up to the order of serving dishes), thanks of the guests (for the invitation and a warm welcome), a counter invitation to visit, seeing the guests in the prescribed manner – the main typical situations of folklore communication in the guest songs of the Eastern Mari. The lyrics are highly informative and give a complete picture of the Mari traditions of hospitality. Guest songs are megatext formations and function as a single discursive whole. They accompany the reception situations, and can themselves determine the course of events related to the reception of guests, as well as the behavior of guests and hosts. In addition, drawing a picture of a certain fragment of the reception of guests, the song allows the performer to express their feelings, experiences, wishes.
UDC: 821.161.1
Authors: Gulzada G. Bagautdinova;
I. A. Goncharov is a recognized “painter” of Russian literature, a classic of portrait descriptions. The means of creating a portrait are different, and the study of rhythm-forming factors as a way of creating a literary portrait is not numerous enough. In poetic speech, rhythm arises mainly at the level of form (meter, rhyme, stanza). The rhythm of artistic prose creates repetitions at different levels of content and form of the artwork. Purpose: to identify some rhythm-forming means of creating portraits of characters in Goncharov’s “Literary evening”. Materials and methods. The subject of the study is the later work of the writer, which allows to identify some patterns inherent in Goncharov’s small and novel prose. The main research methods are historical-genetic and typological. Results, discussion. The study of rhythm as a way of creating character portraits is the least studied aspect of Goncharov's poetics. The scientific novelty of the article is determined by the study of rhythm-forming factors in the creation of some portraits in Goncharov's “Literary evening”. Conclusion. The writer focuses on the image of an acoustic, visualized, audio detail or feature. Intertext and rhythm play a unique role in the portrait creation. The rhythm-forming means in creating portrait descriptions are different: rhythm occurs both at the level of semantic, metatextual correlation of one character with another, and is created by lexical, grammatical repetitions.
UDC: 94(09)(=16/=43)
Authors: Nikolay V. Belenov;
This work is devoted to the introduction and the etymology of geographical names that make up the toponymic space of the Moksha-Mordovian village of Bakhilovo on the Samarskaya Luka. This topic was not previously the object of special research, which determines the relevance of the article. Purpose. Introduction to the scientific basis and analysis of the Moksha-Mordovian toponymy of the surroundings of the village of Bakhilovo on the Samarskaya Luka, on the basis of the characteristic features of the local Moksha-Mordovian dialect, a kind of geographical vocabulary and ethnic history of Bakhilovo Mordovians. Materials and methods. The lexical material for the study was collected by the author during the expeditions of 2017–2018, during which the field method of data collection was used. Etymological and semantic analysis, structural-comparative and areal methods were used in the interpretation of the collected material. Results, discussion. Studies have shown that Bakhilovsky dialect of the Moksha-Mordovian language in the processes of replacing of the indigenous population with newcomers, Russification and natural population decline, suffered more than the other dialects of the Moksha-Mordovian language of the Samarskaya Luka: Tornovsky and Shelekhmetsky. At the same time, the Moksha-Mordovian toponymic nomenclature is still preserved in the environment of both the Moksha-Mordovian and foreign ethnic population of the village, although the processes of de-etymologization and rethinking of Moksha names based on the consonance with the words of the Russian language make themselves known (see below the popular etymology of toponyms Pachkarayka and Pichkuzhu). Conducted research allowed introducing into the scientific circulation of new data on toponymic nomenclature of the Bakhilovo Mordovians, as well as clarifying the form and etymology of a number of previously known toponyms: based on characteristic features of the Bakhilovsky dialect of the Moksha-Mordovian language and the geographical terminology existing in it. Conclusion. The materials collected and presented in this work on the toponymic nomenclature of the surroundings of the Moksha-Mordovian village of Bakhilovo on the Samarskaya Luka will provide a reliable basis for further ethnohistorical and ethno-linguistic studies of the Bakhilovo Mordovians.
UDC: 821.512.111(092)
Authors: Galina A. Ermakova; Marina P. Savirova; Nadezhda I. Yakimova; Ol'ga G. Vladimirova;
The article describes the features of the artistic style of G. N. Aigi, a poet from Chuvashia, who left a noticeable mark in Russian literature of the twentieth century, as well as in world culture. The purpose of this work: based on the analysis of echoing judgments about the style of G. Aigi, the French poet Charles Baudelaire, the natural scientist Georges Louis Leclerc de Buffon, as well as the poetic creativity of G. Aigi to determine the features of his artistic style. It is of interest that G. N. Aigi, gracefully combining words, giving them a deep meaning, represents the surrounding reality of a person, while the artist of the word, using a new rhythmic development, free verse, does not repeat ready-made solutions, but creates his own original style. The poet, thinking about the mystery of being, confirms the idea of the unity of man and nature. The relevance of the study lies in the fact that G. Aigi’s vision of the world is necessary for today’s society, it helps a person to comprehend himself, his place in this world. The study of the artistic style of G. Aigi and C. Baudelaire through the specificity of the “nature” motive allows for a deeper disclosure of the semantic space of his works, to present it in line with the synthesis of the word painter and artist, who created amazing canvases and prosaic miniatures. G. Aigi’s poems and journalistic texts of C. Baudelaire, G. Buffon and G. Aigi, interesting to the authors in the context of studying the style of individual and artistic creativity, were used as material for the study. In the course of writing this article, such methods and techniques as analysis, synthesis, comparison and analogies, generalization and abstraction, ideosemantic, motivational and contextual analyzes were used. The main scientific conclusion of the article: the style of G. Aigi is sense-making, it is determined by the idea of Nature; his work is a “new poetry” (“aigism”) synthesizing in itself the features of realism, modernism, romanticism, symbolism; it is all-seeing, all-hearing, all-feeling; the basis of the artist’s style is the movement of thought. Through the motive of “silence” the poet managed to present both the significant mental qualities of the Chuvash ethnos – “radiant calmness”, the purity of the soul, and a sign of a different world – a symbol of the unearthly essence. Possessing a spiritual vision, his consciousness was able to go beyond the social and psychological spheres, to create constructions, where the eternal was conceived through the earthly.
UDC: 811.511.132’237:556
Authors: Anatoly N. Rakin;
Landscape vocabulary refers to the main vocabulary of any natural language. It is intended for the nomination of both natural geographical objects and man-made ones, resulting from human activity. In accordance with the substantial features (water, land) in the composition of landscape vocabulary, one can distinguish between two macrosystems – hydro-landscape vocabulary and land vocabulary. Each of these components has its own internal structure, which differ from each other both in composition and quantitative indicators. Land vocabulary of the Komi-Permyak language, for example, consists of the following categories: relief landscape vocabulary with three subsystems: hill designation ( vyvtas “elevation”, keros “mountain”, myl’k "hill"), the vocabulary of the plain landscape (volkytin “plain”, otain “valley”, kushin “glade”), the vocabulary of the lowland landscape (uvtas “lowland”, lazhmytin “valley”, göp “hollow”); forest landscape designations (vör “forest”, yag “bor”, ras “grove”); designations of the meadow landscape (vidz “meadow”, yönöd “raw meadow”, lud “pasture meadow”); designations of the marsh landscape (nyur “swamp”, nitsha nyur “moss swamp”, aray “swamp”). The subject of linguistic analysis of the article is the hydronymic vocabulary of the Komi – Permyak language, which does not belong to the category of proper nouns, these are nominal words contained in the dictionaries of commonly used vocabulary. Based on the subject-conceptual content of nominative units, two categories of hydronyms are identified and considered. One of them is system-forming or dominant, it represents the designation of the main types of water bodies of a given area. The second group is concentrated around the dominant units and acts, in relation to them, as intrasystem formations. The basis of the hydro-landscape vocabulary of the Komi-Permyak language is the designation of original origin. The beginning of the formation of the foreign language component belongs to the common Perm Era, the majority of non-original names are late borrowings, penetrated from the Russian language. Other types of borrowing (Baltic-Finnish, Ob-Ugric, Samoyed, Turkic) are absent here.
UDC: 82-3:778.534(476)
Authors: Svetlana V. Romanova;
The article deals with the specifics of the fictional-documentary meta-genre and the types of its functioning in modern Russian-language prose of Belarus. The active distribution of fictional-documentary forms in the works of Russian-speaking authors of Belarus at the turn of the XX–XXI centuries determines the relevance of their study. The attention of researchers to the nature of complex synthetic formations, providing a “supreme” narration, determines the interest in the problem of meta-genre. The goal is to determine the originality of the fictionaldocumentary meta-genre and the types of its functioning in modern Russian-language prose of Belarus. As a result of the study, we found that the specifics of the fictional-documentary meta-genre is manifested in the fictional ability of the text to transform the two-dimensionality of narration into a new meta-reality, in which the artistic organization and authenticity of the depicted are expressed in the construction of the author’s world-image. Depending on the correlation of formal and informative features in the creative system of Russian-speaking authors of Belarus, it is proposed to conditionally distinguish three types of fictional-documentary meta-genre functioning in which the factual content exceeds the fictional, the factual – is in organic synthesis with the fictional, the fictional - serves as the basis of the narration.
UDC: 81`37
Authors: Ekaterina E. Fliginskikh;
Superstitions which include the experience of the previous generations have always played an important role in the rites of transition. There are several types of superstitions; one of the most wide-spread types is protecting superstitions. Such superstitions instruct what it is necessary to do to provide protection. Protecting superstitions include elements having apotropaic nature. Purpose. The aim of the given paper is to compare ritual folk superstitions of the Russian, Mari, and English languages containing the element of apotropaic magic. Materials and methods. The material for the comparison was taken from collections of superstitions in three languages, as well as descriptions of traditions and rituals from books and Internet sources talking about such rites of transition as pregnancy, childbirth, wedding, and funeral. Results, discussion. In the course of the research the author distinguished four groups of apotropaic elements: 1) names of animals and plants, 2) elements of anthropogenic nature (clothes, jewelry, food, household units), 3) power elements (fire, water, metal), 4) colours and sounds. Conclusions. The study has the following results. Things of apotropaic nature are most often mentioned in the Mari language and in such rites of transition as birth of a baby and wedding ceremony. The research helped to distinguish apotropaic elements which are universal in all three languages under study and the elements which are unique for this or that language.
UDC: 82-3
Authors: Jingna Zhang;
This article analyses A. S. Pushkin’s poems, included in the fictionalized biography “Pushkin in exile” by I. A. Novikov The popularity of fictionalized biography in the XX century, the author’s attention to this genre are explained by its relevance in the period of changes in society, people’s necessity to rely on the ideals of the past. The writer’s fictionalized biography, being a specific genre, partly reveals the features of the historical epoch; the use of artistic fiction helps to reconstruct the life of the hero in its continuous development. Purpose: to identify the role of A. S. Pushkin’s lyrical texts for understanding the image of the poet in the dilogy by I. A. Novikov. Materials and methods. The main subject of the analysis is the texts of A. S. Pushkin’s lyrical works included in the fictionalized biography “Pushkin in exile”. Results, discussions. Interaction of the author and the hero in the fictionalized biography reveals in selection of documentary materials; using intuition, figurative perception of reality the biographer tries to reveal the true nature of his hero-writer. Creating the poet’s image in the dilogy, Novikov actively uses the texts of Pushkin’s poems. The author presents the hero as an integral person, so he reviews the life of the poet in the years of exile in close connection with his works of this period. Conclusion. Novikov recreates thoroughly the process of creating poems, shows the formation of Pushkin’s genius. Lyrical texts illustrate the emotional state of the hero, reflect his impressions and experiences. Endowed with a special worldview, the hero depicts the surrounding reality in a poeticized, transformed form.