VESTNIK 4(28) 2017
- VESTNIK 4(28) 2017
- Date publication on the site:
- 2017-12-21 09:14:00
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Congratulations from the Minister of Education and Science of Mari El Republic Natalia V. Adamova
Authors: Natalia V. Adamova;
Уважаемая Елена Валентиновна! Уважаемые члены редколлегии и редакция! Уважаемые авторы и читатели! Примите искренние поздравления с 10-летним юбилеем научного журнала «Вестник Марийского государственного университета».
Congratulations from Mikhail N. Shvetsov, rector of Mari State University
Authors: Mikhail N. Shvetsov;
Дорогие друзья! От всей души поздравляю вас с 10-летием научного журнала «Вестник Марийского государственного университета» – ведущего научного издания опорного вуза Республики Марий Эл.
Authors: E. V. Kondratenko; O. S. Krylova;
3 августа 2007 года произошло значительное событие в научной и издательской деятельности нашего вуза – был подписан в печать первый выпуск научного журнала «Вестник Марийского государственного университета».
THE DIFFICULTIES OF DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN BY THE UZBEK STUDENTS (FROM EXPERIENCE AT THE PREPARATORY DEPARTMENT OF CHUVASH STATE UNIVERSITY)
UDC: УДК 4Р(07)
Authors: Irina N. Anisimova; Elena A. Ignatyeva;
The purpose of the real research consists in identification and the analysis of difficulties and typical mistakes of the Uzbek students when studying Russian as foreign. Written works and oral statements of students of preparatory department of the Chuvash state university act as the main material of a research. During the analysis various groups of difficulties with a support have been allocated for extralinguistic and linguistic criteria. In work descriptive and comparative methods are used. The main difficulties of development of Russian caused by an interlingual interference, connected with influence of graphic, phonetic, grammatical features of Uzbek, native for students, are specified. The typical spelling and grammatical errors capable to create serious barriers in the course of communication with native speakers of Russian and during further training in the Russian higher edu-cation institution are described. Specifics and purpose of receptions and methods of work for their use on classes in Russian as foreign with students from the former Soviet republics for the purpose of increase in learning efficiency are considered. The attention to considerable motivational advantages of professionally focused training of foreign students is paid. The conclusion about need to consider distinctive features of Uzbek and culture in comparison to the Russian linguistic culture for productive work on elimination of mistakes in the speech of foreign students is drawn.
USE OF INNOVATIVE EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES IN FORMING THE COMPETITIVENESS OF A UNIVERSITY STUDENT
UDC: УДК 378.1
Authors: Sergej Ju. Lavrent'ev; A. Krylov Dmitrii ;
The article, taking into account the modernization of professional education requirements of employers for graduates of modern universities, competition in the labor market reveals the importance of searching for qualitatively new teaching technologies, to impart new characteristics to the process of training the future specialist. The aim of the research is theoretical identification and analysis of the essence of innovative educational technologies, which are the basis for increasing practical-oriented classes and the role of active and interactive learning technologies. The main methods are: the study and theoretical analysis of research literature, the content analysis of structured interviews, questionnaires conducted, including using the LMS Moodle system. Interpretation of the terms “innovations”, “interactive” technologies, etc. is given. The use of innovative interactive teaching technologies in the educational process of a modern university is analyzed. The peculiarities and criteria of innovative technologies for forming the competitiveness of university students are revealed. Studies of both theoretical and experimental nature have shown, to the interactive technologies of forming the competitiveness of a university student meeting the above criteria of “innovation”, it is legitimate to include a basket methodl, a “folder” with incoming documents, mental maps, “buzzing” discussion groups and heuristic technologies. Conclusions are drawn that the solution of the problem of effective use of innovative educational technologies in forming the professional competitiveness of future graduates is directly related to the goals, advantages and disadvantages of traditional, interactive and innovative interactive teaching technologies. Distinctive features of interactive technologies for the formation of competitiveness of university students from innovative interactive methods are: the orientation of the well-known and demanded educational technology for future professional activity and its application in new conditions; the novelty of technology, i. e. its use in the educational process no more than ten years; use of advanced foreign technologies, characteristic for the preparation of a competitive specialist in the conditions of the university.
ACTIONS FOR PREVENTION OF EXTREMISM IN SYSTEM OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
Authors: Valery V. Lushchikov;
Holding actions of the deviations directed to prevention among teenagers is very urgent and important now. The challenge to society is particularly acute from the extremist and terrorist organizations. Big problems are the facts of involvement of students in the extremist groups and other destructive organizations pushing them to illegal activity. In the professional educational organizations students get into risk group on distribution of deviations in connection with features of age and a social portrait of students and therefore the system of professional development of pedagogical workers in the direction of prevention of deviations plays an important role in the general system of actions for decrease in deviant manifestations among teenagers. One of forms of professional development of pedagogical shots of the professional educational organizations is holding scientific and practical seminars. At the Chelyabinsk institute of development of professional education within activity of laboratory “A. S. Makarenko's Pedagogics” activities for several directions are carried out: the organization and maintenance of activity of pedagogical community of the teachers realizing A. S. Makarenko's ideas, scientific and methodical maintenance of activity of the professional educational organizations for prevention of asocial manifestations and scientific and methodical maintenance of activities for civil patriotically education. Within these directions laboratory “A. S. Makarenko's Pedagogics” will organize a series of scientific and practical seminars where the questions connected with labor education, patriotism development, prevention of involvement of youth in the extremist organizations, prevention of the use of psychoactive agents and other deviant manifestations on these actions with reports are considered experts from various spheres and departments, and also the staff of the professional educational organizations of Chelyabinsk region are invited. Listeners of the organized actions is all staff of the educational organizations depending on a work profile. Feature of work of laboratory, placement of information on the held events on the official site of institute is. All materials of actions, a photo, video the report, programs and the presentations are posted on the website. All actions are broadcast on the on-line system and many educational organizations finding in a distance from studio of institute can participate in them.
THE PROBLEMS OF ENSURING THE RELIGIOUS RIGHTS OF STUDENTS (FOR EXAMPLE, THE RIGHT TO WEAR RELIGIOUS CLOTHING AND / OR ATTRIBUTES)
Authors: Marina A. Mokoseeva;
A contradictory approach to the realization and maintenance of religious rights will always be at the center of attention in all states, including multi-confessional Russia. One of the points of discussion is related to the educational process. The most controversial is the controversy over the representatives of the Muslim religion and the right of Muslims to wear religious clothing and / or attributes in public places: on the one hand, there are many examples of judicial practice where the right of Muslim women to wear religious clothing in accordance with their religious beliefs is not protected by the organ (the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of July 10, 2013 and February 11, 2015) and, on the other hand, the decision of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federa-tion, when Muslim women received permission to be photographed on the passport in the headgear, i.e., so that the scarf does not cover the ears and forehead (the definition of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of May 15, 2003). The purpose of the article is to identify the transformation of the right to freedom of religion in relation to the right to wear religious clothes and / or attributes in the educational process in modern Russian society. Objectives: to study the judicial practice of ensuring religious rights in the teaching process; to analyze the results of the authentic public opinion of the students of the Mari State University. The author uses various methods of analysis and generalization of legal material, actively applying a comparative legal method. The result of the study was the conclusion that amendments and additions to Russian law and legislation related to the provision of broader guarantees for the exercise of religious rights should be made.
COMPETENCE APPROACH IN THE MANAGEMENT OF MEDICAL REPRESENTATIVES
Authors: Irina V. Podkorytova; Valery M. Golyanich;
To achieve success in its activities, the organization needs personnel with a certain set of competencies. In turn, em-ployees with advanced competencies are highly satisfied as a result of their activities, as well as demonstrate high loyalty and involvement in the activities of the organization . To improve the effectiveness of employees in companies, staff development procedures are developed to increase their individual and corporate competencies. At the same time, the organization's task is to define and develop precisely those competencies of employees who are most in demand in this professional environment. Professional competencies are the key criterion used for internal and external evaluation of the quality of professional activity of employees. Each professional competence can be described by means of certain indicators, which are the standards of human behavior in the organization. For each position in the company should be it’s own list – a portrait of competence. The pharmaceutical industry is highly competitive, and the definition and development of the employee’s professional competences gives the company additional resources to achieve success. The aim of the research was the assessment and development of valid behavioral indicators of competencies of the pharmaceutical company‘s medical representatives. The material for the study was the assessment of activities of medical representatives, conducted by the office of the sales department together with the department of personnel management. The study method was a survey of line managers and medical representatives. As a result of the work carried out, eight core competencies have been identified in LLC “GEROPHARM” and their description has been made. Competency rating is compiled. Thus, a portrait of the competences of the medical representative was developed and behavioral competency indicators were described. The profile of competencies has become a key indicator for line managers of employees of the personnel department when recruiting and evaluating employees, as well as building plans for their individual development in the organization.
ADDITIONAL CO-CREATIVE DESIGNING STUDENTS AND TEACHERS AS A FACTOR IN IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF PROFESSIONAL TRAINING AT THE COLLEGE
Authors: Anatoly S. Chibakov; Dmitrii A. Krylov;
The article reflects the experience of the organization of additional joint creative project activity of students of the institutions of secondary vocational education and teachers (masters of industrial training) with the aim of improving the quality of vocational training and the successful formation of competence among future workers, employees and mid-level professionals. Experimental work on the inclusion of students and teachers in the joint design began in the Yaransk Technological College (Kirov region) in 2012. For 5 years, the effectiveness of achieving the goal was monitored and appropriate adjustments were made. The authors analyzed the works of famous Russian scientists and dissertational research over the past decade on the topic of the chosen direction. It is established that in pedagogical science and practice the problem of improving the quality of vocational education in organizations of initial vocational education and secondary vocational education was studied from different sides. Attention was paid to the systems of training specialists and their integration; content, technologies and means of teaching; method of projects; the basics of informatization of education; monitoring, auditing and evaluation of the quality of education; social partnership, etc. However, the questions of the methodology of organization and effectiveness of additional joint creative project activities of students with teachers and masters of industrial training in the institution of secondary vocational education remain unresolved. Based on the systematization of the best experience and the results of our experimental and pedagogical work, a sequence of current problems that the teacher has to solve when organizing additional joint creative design is highlighted. Namely: the problem of the selection of students and their inclusion in creative activity; the problem of determining the relevance of the expected results and the practical importance of the project; the problem of optimality of methods; the problem of maintaining and stimulating motivation at the main stage of work and the problem of summing up with the active participation of students. The article refers to the most significant success of students of the Yaransk Technological College in recent years at All-Russian competitions organized by the scientific system for young people “Integration”. As quantitative and qualitative indicators confirming the effectiveness of the pilot work, values are given by criteria based on our analytical model for assessing the quality of vocational training and diagnostics of the measurement and development of argumentative skills and qualities.
TO THE QUESTION ABOUT THE POSSIBILITIES OF CHILDREN'S AMATEUR CHOREOGRAPHIC ART IN THE AESTHETIC EDUCATION OF PRESCHOOLERS
Authors: Olga V. Yankovskaya; Nina B. Lamanskaya;
In recent years, attention to the problems of the theory and practice of aesthetic education as an important means of formation of comprehensively developed, spiritually rich personality is markedly increased. Aesthetic education not only allows a person to “open up” towards the colors, sounds and forms of the surrounding world, but also contributes to a deeper understanding and, consequently, contributes to a more comprehensive disclosure of himself, which in turn leads to the development of creative thinking, empowering the individual to find new ways and solutions in any field of activity. It should be mentioned that the problem of aesthetic education is rather fully developed in the works of Russian and foreign pedagogues and psychologists. Among them D. N. Jola, D. B. Kabalevsky, B. T. Likhachev, V. N. Shatskaya, and many others are. The performance of aesthetic education by means of choreography is determined by the syncretic nature of choreographic art, combining music, plastic, visual and theatrical arts, and rhythm. Unfortunately, the aesthetic potential of choreographic art in the work with preschool children is practically not studied, and that led to the relevance of our research. The subject of study are classes in Amateur choreographic collective as a means of aesthetic education of children of preschool age, and its purpose is to identify the role of children's Amateur choreographic art in the aesthetic education of children of preschool age. Research subject to test the hypothesis that the effectiveness of aesthetic education of preschool children in the course of employment in Amateur choreographic collectives can be significantly increased if: 1) to select the works, taking into account psychological peculiarities of children, and possessing high artistic level; 2) ensure the inclusion of each child in creative activities; 3) the manager carries out purposeful activity on development of aesthetic qualities of the child on the basis of the game. The following methods were used in the study: theoretical analysis of literature sources on the problem under study; observation; systematization of pedagogical experience of the leaders of amateur choreographic collectives; questioning.
INFLUENCE OF LOGIC-SYNTACTIC ORGANIZATION OF COMPARATIVE JUDGMENTS ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SETTING OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF SEMANTIC RELATIONS IN THE COMPOSITION OF MENTAL ACTIONS
Authors: Sergey V. Malanov;
The article presents the results of experimental studies aimed at testing the general hypothesis: when using comparative judgments, there are differences in the effectiveness of the organization of mental actions and the subsequent reproduction of their semantic content, depending on the type of comparative relations being established, and also on the features of the syntactic structure of verbal instructions. As independent variables in the experiments used problems that were formulated with the help of comparative judgments. The content of the tasks included different types of comparative relationships. At the same time, with each kind of comparative relationship, different types of logical-syntactic organization of comparative judgments were used. The number of correctly solved problems was recorded depending on the compared spatio-temporal and subject-semantic relations, as well as on the types of syntactic structures used. The obtained results confirm the general hypothesis. The most effective in the mental solution of problems are established “faster – slower” and “higher – lower”, and less effective “left – right” and “near – farther”. At the same time, the most successfully solved problems that require the mental establishment of comparative relationships in the case when the image of the object, the choice of which serves as a solution, is constructed by the logical-syntactic organization of verbal instructions is constructed by the last of the three compared objects. The least successful are the tasks that are characterized by such a logical-syntactic organization, in which the orientation in establishing comparative relationships presupposes one of two options for the mental rearrangement of the represented objects in a linear sequence (C > A > B or B < A < C) as a result of which the location of the object In the represented series can be the first or the last. At the same time, the results obtained indicate that there is no age-related dynamics in the spontaneous development of the skills to establish different types of space-time and subject-semantic relationships in mental activities in the age range from 12 years (schoolchildren of the 5th grade) to 21–22 years (students 4-th courses). Also, there were no gender differences in the success of solving different types of tasks.
THE POSSIBILITIES OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH T O SUPPORT PRESCHOOL CHILDREN WITH LIMITED HEALTH ABILITIES LIVING IN THE MULTICULTURAL REGION
Authors: Elena Yu. Borisovа;
The current situation is characterized by progressive deterioration of the mental health of the child population, the increase in the number of children with deviations in development. In this connection is a problem of development of methods and approaches to diagnose difficulties and to prevent the development of symptoms of maladjustment. Purpose. The main objective of the research presented in this article was development and testing based on the neuropsychological approach of technology of psychological and pedagogical support of preschool children with disabilities living in conditions of polylingual sociocultural environment. Materials and methods. The experiment involved pupils of secondary groups of preschool institutions with General speech underdevelopment of level 3 and with a delay of mental development in the amount of 70 people, including 40 preschoolers to experimental and 30 to control group. The diagnostic program included some tests adapted for children battery options tests A. R. Luria. In the forming step was implemented a complex of correctional-developing work based on the combination of motor and cognitive correction. Results. Implemented comparative analysis of dynamics of indicators of mental development of preschool children of different nosological categories living in polylingual and monolingual environment. The result of remedial work is to promote preschoolers ' ability to learn and execute motor programs to build basic semantic unit of the story in the correct sequence, reflecting the positive dynamics of formation of arbitrary regulation, programming and control. Discussion and Conclusions. Analysis of the results suggests that implementation of a neuropsychological approach to support for children with disabilities provides a positive change, characterizing both the regulative and praksis and gnostic processes, with a more pronounced positive effect is ensured with a suf-ficiently long correctional and developmental impact. It was revealed the effect of the specifics of the language environment on the effectiveness of correctional-developing work.
SPECIFIC FEATURES OF SUBJECTIVE PERCEPTION OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF STRESS FACTORS AND SOMATIC HEALTH BY THE PERSON LIVING IN THE ARMED CONFLICT AREA
Authors: Yevgeniya N. Ryadinskaya;
The goal of the study. The goal of this empirical study is the analysis of the specific features of subjective per-ception by the residents living in the armed conflict area, of the significance of stress factors and their somatic health. This paper presents an analysis of the somatic and mental health of the respondents of the Donetsk People's Republic before and after the beginning of the armed conflict. Materials and methods. For the first time the article presents empirical data based on the developed by the author questionnaire titled “Determination of subjective perception of the significance of stress factors for the person living in an area of the armed conflict” the questions of which were grouped into the following blocks: threats to life, health, economic, socio-political, social, and psychological factors. The subjective assessment of the change in the somatic health of the residents was based on individual interviews, studying medical records on the nature and number of diseases in the last three years (from 2014 up to 2016). Results and their discussion. As a result of the research it was found that significant transformations took place in the somatic health of the respondents during the armed conflict. It was also established that changes in the somatic health are observed in both men and women; in men, the incidence of diseases is higher than that in women. It is empirically shown that in the areas of low-intensity shelling (ALIS) statistically significant are the influences of psychological, social and socio-political stress factors, whereas in the intensively shelled areas (ISA) the main factors affecting the human psyche are the threats to life, health and social factors. The author emphasizes the influence of stress factors on the age categories of people (from 35 to 60 years and from 60 to 75 years). Conclusion. Having studied the subjective assessments of somatic and mental health, and stress factors that affect the people living under the armed conflict conditions, it can be assumed that long stay of people in difficult life circumstances of an armed conflict can make it difficult to integrate them into society and demand corrective and re-adaptation measures, the development of which requires additional research and further implementation.
FEATURES OF THE EMOTIONAL-VOLITIONAL SPHERE OF WOMEN WITH EXCESSIVE BODY MASS, LEADING TO THE DISTURBANCE OF THE MEDICAL DIET
Authors: Yana K. Smirnova; Olga M. Lyubimova;
The aim of the study was to study the specificity of the emotional state of overweight women as a risk of eating disorders and disrupting a therapeutic diet. Tasks. The main objective of the study, based on experimental psychological data, is to determine the personality characteristics of the women's emotional-volitional sphere, which are interrelated with food behavior and contribute to the disruption of the therapeutic diet. Methods. On the sample of women involved in the weight loss program, using psychodiagnostic procedures, the parameters of emotional-volitional regulation are identified, which are predictors of eating disorders. Discussions and results. It is proved that among the most important factors of eating disorders are the psycho-logical factors arising in connection with the instability of the psychological state. Reduction of strong-willed self-regulation and control of emotional reactions in women with excessive body weight, manifests itself in the following areas: personal (psychological protection), emotional (emotional reactions (aggressiveness, anxiety, etc.), volitional (weakness of willpower, asthenia). It is shown that the features of the emotional-volitional sphere of women with excessive body weight can cause emotional eating behavior. The comparative characteristics of the emotional-volitional aspects of women who are concerned about the hog exact weight. Identify the differences in eating behavior of women, depending on whether they are overweight problem. On the example of externalities such as eating proven that certain types of eating disorders in women can influence the state of emotional sphere. Conclusions. It was possible to analyze the emotional state of women with excessive body weight and to trace how the diet situation actualizes the personal defense mechanisms that can contribute to women's refusal to comply with the diet. It has been confirmed that the psychological prerequisites of eating disorders are experiences of fixed negative emotional states with a decrease in emotional-volitional control.
THE PROBLEM OF PERSON'S INFORMATION-PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY IN MODERN RUSSIAN RESEARCHES
Authors: Mariya V. Chemodanova;
Introduction. The article presents the results of the research of publications activities on the problem of infor-mation-psychological safety (IPS) in modern Russian science. The relevance of this topic is due to critical information environment changes, affecting all spheres of human being, transforming the system of social relations and ways of human orientation in the environment. First of all, this problem is connected with affecting of poor-quality information on the human consciousness, threatening his intellectual, spiritual and physical development and well-being. Materials and methods. The study was conducted using methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, generalization and systematization of materials presenting the results of work of modern Russian scientists in the field of information and psychological safety. Results. The obtained results have identified the IPB as a sophisticated multilevel phenomenon that requires a complex interdisciplinary research; indicated the main directions of information-psychological safety's researching (general methodological principles of the IPB, information-psycholo¬gical safety in the state security system, information-psychological safety of the personality, researching actual characteristics of the information environment). Among them, we have identified the general direction and content of dissertation researches on this issue. Discussion and Conclusions. Implemented theoretical analysis of modern scientific research in the field of information-psychological safety showed a low level of the problem's development and a great interest of scientists in the development of ways and means of the formation of personal's psychological defense from harmful effecting of the information environment.
DEVELOPMENT OF POSITIVE FAMILY’S ATTITUDE TO MENTALLY ILL RELATIVES
Authors: Olga V. Shishkina; Olga A. Gavrilova; Igor A. Zagainov; Maria L. Blinova;
The article deals with the research of problems in a family which has a mentally ill relative (two kinds of families were analyzed – with a mentally ill child or adult). Development of the positive attitude of family towards mentally ill relatives is a research objective. Object of a research is relationship in family which has mentally ill patients (children or adults). Development of the positive family relations in the course of psychological support of families where there live mentally ill is subject of research. We have offered in a research hypothesis that in the course of psychological support of the family having mentally ill relative such phenomena as the lack of empathy and sympathy for the patient, high degree of anxiety and low-spiritedness, the unacceptable attitude towards the ill adult or the child, will change in the positive direction.The families underwent psychological diagnostics, then took part in the programme of psychological assistance. This assistance supposed training activities in groups, psychocorrective and rehabilitation activities with relatives of mentally ill people. The programme of psychological activities for parents who have a mentally ill child was aimed at changing child-parent relations, improving of perception of children, at developing of communication skills with a mentally ill child. The programme of activities for families who have a mentally ill adult was aimed at developing of communication skills, empathy, person’s emotional self-regulation and at improving of relatives’ tolerance to a mentally ill adult. The carried out psychological activities led to positive changes in families’ relation to mentally ill relatives, that made it possible to introduce this kind of psychological assistance in the work of Kundushturskiipsychoneurological residential institution.
LINQUOCULTURAL HINDRANCES AND PROBLEMS IN INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION BETWEEEN CITIZENS OF RUSSIA AND USA
Authors: Marianna Y. Anduganova; Liana K. Postoyan;
This article is devoted to the consideration of linguocultural features in intercultural communication between Russian Federation and the USA, where there will be reflected emotions and feelings of a person, which is considered to be significant and very important aspect for scientific research from different points of view. The analysis of this study provides an opportunity to clarify the peculiarities of English national culture, and also allows us to consider possible problems and prospects in the process of communication between Russian Federation and the USA. Since linguoculturogy is considered to be a related science, formed at the junction of linguistics and culturology, then the methods of this science are applied accordingly based on the arsenal of both directions. The investigation is aimed at solving three main tasks, namely: 1) to determine the subject of linguoculturology and describe the main approaches of the relationship between culture and language; 2) a description of the types of communicative and cultural hindrances and problems in intercultural communication; 3) the identification of the most significant nonequivalent concepts in the language and culture of the Russian and American ethnic groups. The study has revealed three main relationship problem approaches between culture and language. There were brought to light five intercultural communicative hindrances and nine linquocultural hindrances. Overall conclusion is that basic linquocultural problems between citizens of Russia and USA appear by the reason of concept and linguistic picture of world varieties. There are Intercultural communication difficulties such as background knowledge, cultural connotation differences of language units, cultural stereotypes, special national character, communicative strategies and communicative skewnesses 2) a description of the types of communicative and cultural hindrances and problems in intercultural communication; 3) the identification of the most significant nonequivalent concepts in the language and culture of the Russian and American ethnic groups. The study has revealed three main relationship problem approaches between culture and language. There were brought to light five intercultural communicative hindrances and nine linquocultural hindrances. Overall conclusion is that basic linquocultural problems between citizens of Russia and USA appear by the reason of concept and linguistic picture of world varieties. There are Intercultural communication difficulties such as background knowledge, cultural connotation differences of language units, cultural stereotypes, special national character, communicative strategies and communicative skewnesses.
LINGVOCULTURAL FEATURES OF RUSSIAN LEXEMS AND PHRASEOLOGISTS WITH SEMANTICS OF SPEECH
Authors: Al'mira R. Akhmedzyanova;
The article deals with some linguistic and cultural peculiarities of lexical and phraseological units with the semantics of speech in the Russian language. The aim of the article is to give linguistic cultural characterics of lexemes and idioms. It appears as linguistic-cultural phenomenon, is included in a cultural context and enables a person to become a carrier of a certain culture. In particular, an attempt to relate the words with the semantics of the question with the codes of culture was made, that the linguist V. V. Krasnykh, specialist in, In psycholinguistical distinguishes. Red. In the token with a transparent inner form. An attempt to correlate the SEM, semen and relationships in the semantic structure with the archetypes and etymological value. Also into account modern lexical and grammatical meanings of the words is taken. Basic codes of the culture, correlated with the speech, substantiated the relationship of lexical and phraseological units and mentifacts in Russian culture. Investigates change the values of some units. This article draws on material compiled and edited multimedia dictionary “The red book of the Russian language”, which is being developed in the framework of the project “Red book of the Russian language”. An attempt to create the image of a speech as a phenomenon of human life and activity in a Russian linguistic culture. The description of the linguistic and cultural characteristics of speech enshrined in the values of adjectives and nouns with semantics of evaluation. Connotations are also considered as an important element of linguistic and cultural analysis of lexical units of the language. An attempt to analyze the relationship connotations from an etymological value (example with the archetype “to speak”) was made. The paper is an attempt of characterization of the semantics in linguistic and cultural, ethnolinguistic, etymological aspect.
TRANSLATION’S FEATURES OF DIPLOMATIC DISCOURSE
Authors: Svetlana V. Vladimirova; Yulia V. Anikina;
The aim of the article is to research specific of diplomatic discourse as the framework of communication in the state and government activities caring out external international and domestic policy. Diplomatic discourse is considered as text of the official character having institutional focus whose contents are aimed at resolving con-tentious issues through peaceful means and at the creation of the international trust between countries and governments. Its difference from the close concepts “political talks” and “political argumentation” consists in form (oral and written) and structure (monologue, dialogue, polylog). The authors define the main functions of diplomatic discourse: appellative, communicative, representative, manipulative, regulative, function of propaganda. They analyze the extralinguistic (the means of persuasion, information, impact, communication in public institutions) and linguistic (the use of specific terminology, standard etiquette phrases, clichés, special lexical and grammatical units) features of the text. The article describes methods and results translation of lexical units in the Inaugural speech of the 44th President Barack Obama. The text has following translation transformations: the method of regular correspondences (35 %), method of prolapse (25 %), the method of generalization (17 %), method of modulation (7 %), method of tracing (7 %), the method of transliteration (3 %), the method of concretization (3 %), method implications (3 %). Frequently are used translation transformations, if the original text and translation text have many matching. Infrequently are used translation transformations, if the original text and translation text have few matching. For the neutralization of lexical items with negative connotations are used method of generalization.
LEXICO-SEMANTIC TRANSFORMATIONS OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE MEDIA
Authors: Ludmila V. Grichenko;
The aim of the article concerns the analysis of the lexico-semantic transformations of phraseological units in the English language media. The material of the study is 200 examples of lexico-semantic transformations, which are considered in the aspects of their semantics, functioning, expressive stylistics, cognitive basis and linguocultural specificity. Analyzed lexico-semantic transformations are based on the thematic unity, synonymy, paronymy, antonymy. The listed types of transformations concern the key principles of human cognition: the relations of identity, analogy, opposition, group affiliation. The basis of the study is a comprehensive approach to the linguistic phenomena research in the aspects of traditional lexicographic, structural-semantic, cognitive and stylistic analysis. The integration of scientific paradigms allows to identify cognitive and linguistic basis for substitutions, explains the choice of the components according to the pragmatics, communicative situation, linguocultural peculiarities. The article emphasizes the fact of transformed phraseological units reference to speech, the existence of associative connections, on the basis of which it is possible to recognize the conventional and transformed versions. The author deals with the issues of phraseological units and free combinations different nature, reveals the wide systemic possibilities that allow paradigmatic relations syncretism, underlines the unique nature of the pragmatic influence, which allows to decrease addressee’s attitude. The originality of the study concerns the analysis of lexico-semantic transformations of the phraseological units determined by a set of linguistic and extralinguistic factors (cognitive principles, language features of the phraseological units, functioning, addressee intention and etc.).
CHUVASH DRAMATURGY OF THE 1990S: SOME ASPECTS OF STUDYING A QUESTION
Authors: Irina Yu. Kirillova;
The main tendencies of development of the Chuvash dramaturgy in the 1990s are considered in the article. The end of the twentieth century was marked in the history of the Chuvash people by a number of social, political, cultural changes that had an impact on the development of the national drama. During this period, it was characterized by a multidirectional development and expansion of the ideological and thematic range. In the article on the broad material of the Chuvash dramaturgy of the 1990s the motives of social and economic shocks, reflected on family values and moral orientations of modern society, are shown, the urgency of the conflict between the society and the person in the conditions of the rapidly changing world is shown. The article is a continuation of the author's scientific research related to the generalization of the artistic merits of the Chuvash drama. The main attention is paid to the dramas of B. Chindykov, N. Sidorov, N. Ugarin, A. Tarasov, in which the authors analyze the actual problems of history and the present day with dramatic means, compre-hend the past of the people, investigate the development of the national character, identify the sources of social and moral problems of modernity. Considerable attention is paid to different approaches to the problem of identification of modern Chuvash drama in the paradigm of one or another type of creativity (realistic, postmodern). Thus, based on the analysis of B. Chindykov's artistic system of dramaturgic experiments (“Blackberries along the wattle fence” etc.), their involvement in the general paradigm of the so called “new drama” is proved. The article also analyzes the genre components of the Chuvash drama, determines the artistic status of each of them in the system of poetics of the genre, examines the features of the conflict.
PECULIARITIES OF HISTORICAL RELIGION IN THE CHUVASH DRAMATICS OF THE SECOND HALF OF THE XX CENTURY
Authors: Irina Yu. Kirillova; Al'bina F. Myshkina;
The historical genre in modern fiction is sufficiently developed. His poetics are complex and diverse: to achieve credibility, writers refer to both historical documents and personalities, as well as to legends and folklore images. The purpose of this study was to study those works of Chuvash literature (mainly dramas) in which writers touch upon the history of the people, in particular, the era of the Volga Bulgaria and the entry of Chuvash lands into Russia. This topic in the works of writers is rather delicate, because until now Chuvash historical science has not fully solved the problem of the historical development of the people. In this regard, in any work of this nature, there are many controversial and ambiguous questions from the point of view of their reliability. As the main material for scientific analysis, the authors selected works of drama from the second half of the 20th century (T. Pederki, M. Yuriev, I. Petrova, M. Karyagina, B. Chindykov, N. Petrovsky-Tevetkel, etc.). Also, as the most successful example of the historical genre and from the point of view of the reliability of historical facts and events, K. Turhan's novel “Sviyaga falls into the Volga” is analyzed. It should be noted that many of the analyzed works gained their popularity at the end of the 20th century, during the rise of the national self-consciousness of the Chuvash people, and at the beginning of the XXI century, when the problem of preserving the national language and culture is also one of the most urgent. The main result of this study is the tendency, revealed by the authors, to attract a similar historical material for the realization of the main idea of the work – the formation or revival of the national-ethnic self-consciousness of the Chuvash people.
THE CONCEPT OF THE “HOUSE” IN THE “PETERSBURG TEXT” (BASED BY N. S. LESKOV'S NOVEL “ON THE KNIVES”)
Authors: Olga S. Krylova;
“Petersburg text” as supertext is a complex of different works, combined in a situational and content. Formation of a special semantic space of the “Petersburg text”, in which traditional values for Russian people receive the opposite illumination, the concept “house” contributes. The purpose of this article is to consider how to implement the concept of «home» in the perspective of the problem of the “Petersburg text” on the material of N. S. Leskov “On the knives” (1870–1871). The purpose is concretized in the following tasks: describe the essence of the phenomenon of the “Petersburg text” of Russian literature; to analyze the embodied features and shades of the meaning of the key concept of the “Petersburg text” – the concept “house” in the novel by N. S. Leskov “On the knives.” Basically, the novel presents two opposing topos – St. Petersburg and the province. The author of the article is important to show how the material reality of St. Petersburg in the novel influences and changes spiritual values. As a result of the research, the author of the article comes to the conclusion that St. Petersburg in the novel of N. S. Leskov appears in the traditional description – a gloomy, dangerous, unprotected city in which a person is lonely and unhappy, and the concept of the “house” in the “St. Petersburg text” realizes the shades of meaning that are not peculiar to him in the standard linguistic picture of the world: the house is a place of solitude and longing. The relevance of the article is due to the frequent appeal of researchers to the phenomenon of the “Petersburg text”, which is part of the national culture and influences its development. Insufficient study of the novel “On the knives” in connection with his forced and undeserved “forgetfulness” because of the antinigilistic orientation of the work speaks about the novelty of the research. Methods used: comparative, contextual analysis, typological analysis.
“PETERSBURG TEXT” OF RUSSIAN LITERATURE IN THE LESKOV'S CYCLE “THE RIGHTEOUS MEN”
Authors: Inna N. Mikheeva;
Introduction. “The Petersburg text” was deliberately used By Leskov in the disclosure of images of righteous man. The writer takes already established in the Russian literature of the axiological significance of Petersburg. The purpose of this article is to study the functioning of the “Petersburg text» of Russian literature in the cycle “The Righteous Men”. Results, discussion. One of the methods of creating the image of Petersburg in the cycle is the image of the activity of officials, bureaucracy. Petersburg has an impact on the characters, becomes a place of testing their value system. In the “Righteous” NS. Leskov depicts the characters who were killed by “Petersburg circumstances” (left-hander (“Lefty”), Fermor (“Engineers-bessrebeniki”)), and characters with a spiritual core, heroes-righteous who are not subject to harmful influence (Ivan Flyagin (“Enchanted Wanderer”), Bryanchaninov and Chikhachev (Engineers-Bessarrenki, soldier Postnikov (“On the Clock”), Pygmy (“Pygmy”), Major-General Persian, economist Bobrov, Dr. Zelensky, cook Kulakov, Father Archimandrite (“The Cadet Monastery”)). The internal spiritual organ The characterization of the characters is a kind of immunity directed against the influence of the surrounding space, the environment, and it is the integrity of the hero's character that determines his resistance to Petersburg's influence of the charter. Conclusion. “Petersburg text” performs in the “The Righteous Men” cycle the function of creating conditions for the manifestation of value-significant qualities of the personality of the hero-righteous person. This function is realized as susceptibility / non-adherence to the influence of a destructive city and as a spiritual-moral test.
THE IMAGE OF PEOPLE IN THE CONTEXT OF THE SOCIAL VALIDITY IN A. I. KUPRIN’S CREATIVITY
Authors: Inna G. Chesnokova;
The problem of a nationality (national character) in the Russian literature, in particular, in creativity of the Russian writer of the end XIX – the beginnings of XX centuries – A. I. Kuprin is considered. The nationality (national character) of a vital and creative position of the writer is fairly regarded as conducting force of his talent. The purpose of given article is to prove, that A. Kuprin's national psychology investigates in the different social validity: in the army environment, in the country environment. In this connection works of the writer about army life are analyzed: stories “Night shift”, “Inquiry”, the story “Duel”. Cruelty of the army environment, the brutal attitude to soldiers are marked. Images of soldier Merkulov and of soldier Zamoshnikov from the story “Night shift” are analyzed. Comments on author's sympathy to simple people are given. The second part of article is devoted to the analysis of works of A. Kuprin about peasantry. Particularly detailed analysis of the author's Polessky cycle is, which included stories “Forest wilderness”, “On wood grouse” and the story “Olesya”. The peasantry of A. Kuprin is shown from the negative side, commotion, ignorance, laziness, drunkenness of the peasants. Most vividly Kuprin wrote out the images of Cyril and Talimon from the story “Forest Wilderness” and the image of Yarmola from the story “Olesya”. The characteristic features of the images are illustrated by examples from the texts of stories and novels. In addition, it is noted that the images of Cyril, Talimon, Yarmola are no exception, but, on the contrary, their connection with the rest of the village world is emphasized. In conclusion, the article concludes that Kuprin's work was always connected with the life of the common people, and people's characters are always shown in the context of social reality.
VII ARSENTYEV READINGS AND RUSSIAN SOCIETY FOR INTELLECTUAL HISTORY
UDC: УДК 378.4(470.344)
Authors: Г. В. Рокина;
В 2017 году прошло десять лет со дня смерти выдающего педагога и организатора образования, проректора Чувашского государственного университета им. И. Н. Ульянова (ЧГУ) профессора Анны Васильевны Арсентьевой (1954–2007). Эта мемориальная дата совпала с празднованием 50-летия со дня образования ЧГУ. К этим памятным дням было приурочено проведение в ЧГУ VII Арсенть¬евских чтений. Научные конференции, получившие название «Арсентьевские чтения», являются важной коммеративной практикой ученых Чувашии по сохранению памяти об А. В. Арсентьевой. Впервые чтения состоялись в октябре 2008 года и были посвящены теме формирования единого пространства образования и науки в российской высшей школе. С этого времени конференции проводились ежегодно и всегда были связаны с проблемами образования. В 2017 году чтения были посвящены проблематике университетологии и на-зывались «Парадигмы университетской истории: к 50-летию Чувашского государственного университета имени И. Н. Ульянова». Университетология – это междисциплинарное направление современного социогуманитарного знания, интегрирующее различные научные школы, к объектам изучения которых относится Университет. Эта проблематика получила широкий отклик специалистов разного профиля из многих городов России и семи зарубежных государств. Значительная часть организаторов и участников Арсентьевских чтений является членами Российского общества интеллектуальной истории (РОИИ), отделения которого созданы в вузах Казани, Чебоксар и Йошкар-Олы . На пленарном заседании чтений прозвучал доклад руководителя Центра интеллектуальной истории Института всеобщей истории РАН, член-корреспондента РАН Л. П. Репиной на тему «Истории университетов как феномен мемориальной культуры». Л. П. Репина выделяет различные исследовательские модели в универси-тетологии: исследование институциональной модели университета как целого; изучение роли университетов в истории образования, в преподавании или научных исследованиях. Новая модель культурно-антропологической перспективы дела¬ет акцент на повседневной жизни университетов; изучении университетских тради¬ций; осмыслении «университетского прост¬ранства». В этом плане была интересна подаренное всем участникам кон¬ференции юбилейное издание «Полвека на ни¬ве образования: к 50-летию ЧГУ имени И. Н. Ульянова» (Чебоксары: Чувашское книжное издательство, 2017. 367 с.). Эта монография, подготовленная ав-торским коллективом ЧГУ, является примером юбилейной университетской истории, «образы которой несут в себе знания о прошлом и воплощают ценности и смыслы культуры в конструктивных формах памяти, призванных обеспечить возможность эффективной социальной практики в настоящем в пользу желаемого будущего» . Традиционно в чтениях принимали участие чле¬ны Йошкар-Олинского отделения РОИИ – те, кто помнит и чтит память коллеги по университетскому образованию (профессора Ю. С. Обидина, Г. В. Рокина) . Конференция показала, что память о чувашском ученом, выдающемся педагоге консолидирует университетское сообщество и объе¬диняет потенциал ученых, научные интересы которых связаны с вопросами изучения истории университетских и академических сообществ. Особой была и творческая атмосфера конференции, она стала реальной научной площадкой для обмена мнениями ученых, информационным каналом для преподавателей различных вузов России, возможностью обсудить насущные проблемы современного Университета. Благодаря усилиям и организаторским талантам членов Чувашского отделения РОИИ, российское университетское со-общество интеллектуалов, получило возможность очередной творческой встречи в Чебоксарах в стенах ЧГУ для обмена результатами научных исследо¬ваний, новыми идеями и издательскими проектами.
“ROAD MAP” OF FATE TO THE ANNIVERSARY OF THE FACULTY OF TRAINING OF TEACHERS OF INITIAL CLASSES
Authors: Н. С. Морова;
Из прошлого – в настоящее Мне всегда казалось, что я достаточно хорошо знаю Ольгу Александровну Макарову, доцента кафедры начального и общего образования педагогического института нашего университета. У таких, как она, практически одна запись в трудовой книжке – с датой приема на работу. А все остальное – на виду у всех: учеба на биофаке с активной студенческой жизнью, аспирантура в Казани у знаменитого профессора Е. Л. Любарского, успешная защита диссертации, и вот перед нами молодой кандидат биологических наук с огромным желанием «сеять разумное, доброе, вечное…». И далее педфак, как среди своих до сих пор называют фа¬культет подготовки учителей начальных классов, такой маленький, уютный и теплый, созданный заботливыми руками Евдокии Яковлевны Гурьяновой и тех, кто в 80-е и 90-е годы был рядом с ней. Именно здесь мне и пришлось познако-миться с Ольгой Макаровой как потомственным педагогом, продолжателем линии своей мамы Елизаветы Михайловны Видякиной, кандидата педагогических наук, которая передала ей любовь к природе вообще, а к земле марийской – в особенности. Что берем мы в большую жизнь от родителей? Безусловно, однозначного ответа здесь нет, у каждого своя «дорожная карта» судьбы, записанная как в генах, так и в семейных традициях. Но если попытаться выделить главное в де¬лах и поступках О. А. Макаровой, то я бы назвала преданность профессии, способность брать удар на себя, стремление покорять новые вершины.
Authors: Редакция научного журнала;
Retracted article: Saifutdiyarova E. F., Fatikhova L. F. Analiz zarubezhnykh issledovanii po pro¬bleme ispol'zovaniya komp'yuternykh tekhnologii v korrektsionno-obrazovatel'noi rabote s uchashchimisya s OVZ [Analysis of foreign studies on the use of computer technologies in correctional and educational work with students with disabilities]. Vestnik Mariiskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta = Vestnik of the Mari State University. 2017, no. 3 (27), pp. 7580 (In Russ). This article Elena Sayfutdiyarova F. (email@example.com) and Lydia F. Fatikhova (firstname.lastname@example.org) withdrawn (i. e. withdrawn from the press) with permission of the authors and publisher. The reason for the article retraction is redundant publication: the author has published substantially the article under the title “The analysis of foreign researches on a problem of use of computer technologies in correctional and educational work with pupils with limited opportunities of health” in the journal “Korrektsionno-peda¬gogicheskoe obrazovanie [Of corrective pedagogical education]” (2017, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 39–47). The Editorial Board would like to extend its sincere apologies for any inconvenience this retraction may have caused.