VESTNIK 2(22) 2016
- VESTNIK 2(22) 2016
- Date publication on the site:
- 2016-07-21 13:37:25
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USE OF THE QUALITY ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGY WHILE IMPLEMENTING THE FEDERAL STATE EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS OF HIGHER EDUCATION (FSES HE) ON THE BASIS OF MULTIPLE CHOICE TESTS
UDC: УДК 378.14.015.62
Authors: Olga Leonidovna Voskresenskaya ; Elena Vitalyevna Sarbayeva ; Elena Aleksandrovna Alyabysheva ;
Graduate training quality evaluation should be carried out from the standpoint of the competency ap-proach. To do this, the universities need to rebuild not only the educational process, but also the control system through the introduction of competence-oriented tasks. Competencies are multidimensional, substantive characteristics of the quality of training of the graduates, and express the ability to apply knowledge, skills and experience for successful employment. Therefore, the use of only traditional test items with a choice of answers is already insufficient. It also requires the creation of complex measuring instruments developed using innovative educational technologies. The article summarizes the experience of the creation of tests used to assess the quality of training of specialists, bachelors and masters in biology, ecology and environmental management. The authors of this article have participated for several years in the development of tests for school ecological competitions of different levels, intercollegiate student ecological contests, tasks for the Federal online exam in the field of vocational education in biology, ecology, botany, plant physiology and others.
ATTITUDE TO THE PROBLEM OF SECURITY AND COUNTER-TERRORISM OF FUTURE TEACHERS
UDC: УДК 378.178
Authors: Irina Sergeevna Zimina ; Svetlana Asanovna Mukhina ; Ol'ga Veniaminovna Polozova ; Marija Nikolaevna Gavrilova ;
The relevance of the theme under study is determined by the problem of ensuring stability and security of the society through young people’s attitude to terrorism. The human community should be able to protect a person’s world outlook, educational, scientific and cultural needs that determine a person’s existence and mental world. One of the key trends in the fight against extremist and terrorist acts in the social environment is their prevention. It is especially important to carry out such preventive measures among young people. The rising generation appears to be the most unprotected category of the population susceptible to the influence of xenophobia destroying traditional values of national cultures and religions which is in a peculiar kind of a spiritual and axiological vacuum. 79 students of 1–5 years of study at the age of 17–22 were questioned according to the test-questionnaire “Young people’s attitude to terrorism”. Almost all respondents (95 %) confirmed that terrorism is dangerous for the society and the problem really exists. The majority of respondents distinguish such qualities as cruelty, niggardliness, quick temper, and instability when describing a terrorist’s portrait. When ana-lyzing major reasons why people become terrorists, the students gave the first place to striving to feel power over people. Among other important reasons that influence a terrorist’s personality development, they stated commitment to a certain ideology and striving to achieve material wealth. We need an integral system of terrorism prevention including, among other things, its pedagogical foundations.
ON THE FORMATION OF INTEGRAL ASSESSMENT OF INNOVATIVE EDUCATIONAL PROJECTS EFFECTIVENESS
UDC: УДК 378
Authors: Larisa Vladimirovna Karaulova ;
The article is devoted to the construction of integral assessment of effectiveness of innovative projects in education. The purpose of the innovative project is usually quite versatile, so the results achieved from the implementation of the project should be assessed not by one, but by the whole criteria system. The effectiveness of the project is the ratio of the results to costs. Therefore, both the result and the cost must be quantified in the integral (complex) effectiveness assessment. On the basis of the individual (private) parameters, the study requires to build an integrated assessment, which will not only allow to assess the effectiveness of the project, but also to choose from several proposed projects an optimal in terms of efficiency. Thus, it is shown that the integral evaluation of the project is a multi-criteria optimization mathematical model. The specificity of the educational projects is that many private criteria of efficiency do not lend themselves to precise quantitative measurement. It is therefore necessary to express these criteria quantitatively and to bring the resulting values to a comparable form. Different normalization techniques may be used for this purpose. Further development of an integrated assessment is analytical expression based on the values of its individual criteria (build the optimization model with constraints on the values for those criteria) and the proposal of a method of realization of the obtained models. It is noted that the value of an integrated assessment (and therefore the optimal choice of project) may vary significantly depending on the chosen method of normalization of particular criteria and method of implementing the model. Thus, the study proves that the development of an integrated assessment should include not only the selection of the particular criteria and offer a specific way of constructing an integrated estimation, but also carrying out comparative characteristics of the possible types of integrated assessments in terms of the adequacy of the actual situation in which the project should be implemented.
ASSESSMENT OF PERSONAL AND COGNITIVE EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES OF STUDENTS AT SECONDARY SCHOOL BY THE EXAMPLE OF FORMATIVE (CLASSROOM) ASSESSMENT
UDC: УДК 371.26
Authors: Anastasija Vladimirovna Onuchina ;
The purpose of the research is to present the theoretical aspects and practical experience in assessing and monitoring mechanism of personal and cognitive educational outcomes of students of the secondary school by the example of forming (classroom) assessment. The study involved the following research methods: theoretical (study and generalization of innovative pedagogical experience of formation of universal educational actions in secondary school students); empirical (testing, analysis of the results of educational and extra-curricular activities). The article describes the following research results: diagnostic tools for assessing educational outcomes of students of secondary school is developed and experimentally tested. The main part of the study presents the following monitoring structure: learning activities (projective techniques); tests, questionnaires; self-assessment by learners through the implementation of practice-oriented tasks. The article presents the experience of the implementation of psycho-pedagogical methods on the example of projective techniques: working with etymological dictionary, working with maps, working with the literary map, working with metaphors, quotations from literary works. The basis for the development of criteria is a systematic research framework, activity, metasubject approaches. Conclusion: assessment of personal and cognitive educational outcomes of students of the secondary school at the level of internal assessment allows not only to appreciate, but also to form a number of training activities and skills.
WE LEARN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE BY PLAYING
UDC: УДК 373:37:81’243
Authors: Natalija Valer'evna Ohotina ;
The article is devoted to an actual problem of the English language training of preschool children in the course of game activities using visual aids. The English language at preschool age is the actual trend in teaching methods, requiring new approaches and non-standard solutions. The article reveals the main strategic lines in planning, organization and implementation of the English language training program “Funny English for kids” designed for children from 5 to 7 years, in the municipal budget preschool educational institution of Yoshkar-Ola “Kindergarten № 12” – “The Camomile”. This article shows the way the visually-play activity helps to solve the aim of the teacher - to activate the cognitive activity of children in the course of teaching English, and also to cultivate interest to the country of the learned language through musical maintenance – songs of native speakers. The study summarizes the practical experience of using different types of games based on visual aids, and highlights their components. The article shows the efficiency of the motivational system in order to acquire new knowledge by children of preschool age, as well as the formation of the communicative competence in the classroom of English using the study program “Funny English for kids”.
RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF FORMATION OF EDUCATIONAL INDEPENDENCE OF YOUNGER SCHOOLBOYS IN THE COURSE OF SPEECH ACTIVITY
UDC: УДК 371.3
Authors: Natal'ja Gennad'evna Sannikova ;
The article is devoted to the description of the results of dissertation research on “The Formation of educational independence of younger school students in the process of speech activity”. The aim of the study is to see whether the list of pedagogical conditions and evidence of their effective influence on the formation of educational independence of younger school students. The author defines the pedagogical conditions: the targeted development of the speech activity as a basis of formation of educational independence of younger school students by involving them in active learning activities; development and implementation into the pedagogical process of comprehensive schools of the model of gradual formation of educational independence of younger school students in the process of speech activity; development and introduction in educational process of teaching materials aimed at improving speech activity and involves the phased development of components of educational independence of younger school students; monitoring of formation of educational independence of younger school students in the process of speech activity based on the method of component analysis of the text. This assertion was tested through the use of various pedagogical methods: theoretical (analysis of psychological, pedagogical, scientific-methodical literature on the research topic; study and generalization of advanced pedagogical experience; analysis, synthesis, comparison, generalization, modeling); empirical (pedagogical experiment, observation, questionnaire, survey); mathematical (quantitative and qualitative analysis, statistical data processing). Assessment of level of formation of educational independence, expressed in quantitative terms for the individual components, has allowed to solve the complex problem of the analysis of the results. The stepwise analysis allowed to investigate the process (stages) of formation of educational independence, and the outcome evaluation helped to track the level of training students the ability to build their own educational activities as an end result of the purposeful educational process. The author of the study reached the goal and found out what pedagogical conditions could be used for the possibility to form educational independence of younger school students in the process of speech activity.
ON THE ISSUE OF EDUCATIONAL AND RESEARCH ACTIVITY OF PRESCHOOLERS
UDC: УДК 373:37.03
Authors: Elena Vjacheslavovna Khmelkova ;
The article deals with topical issues of educational and research activity of children as one of the types of activities that determines the course of mental and personal development of the child at the stage of early childhood. Today one of the main directions in the system of education is the formation of a socially active person, able to navigate in today's information technology environment where you need to show exploratory behavior. According to the Federal state educational standard of preschool education (GEF), cognitive research involves the study of objects of the surrounding world and experimenting with them. This paper analyzes the main approaches to understanding research behavior and experimentation in research on pedagogy and psychology. So, experimentation stands out as the main form of orienting-research (search) activity (N. N. Poddjakov, A. N. Poddjakov); exploratory behavior is a universal feature of human activity, one of the most effective mechanisms of learning (N. N. Poddjakov); research activities concern: 1) child's activity aimed at cognition of things device, connections between the phenomena of the world and their ordering and systematization (N. A. Korotkov), 2) a certain set of related actions (operations), under which children receive knowledge about the object or phenomenon (I. I. Levashev). According to the author, educational and research activity based on their natural curiosity and cognitive needs of children, is a means and a mechanism of socio-communicative development of preschool children.
DIAGNOSTICS OF THE SKILLS AND QUALITIES TO REASON AND ARGUE IN TRAINING SKILLED WORKERS
UDC: УДК 377.3
Authors: Anatoly Sergeevich Chibakov ; Dmitry Aleksandrovich Krylov ;
The article is devoted to an actual problem of Russian education - the diagnostics of skills and qualities of students to reason and argue in training skilled workers to work in conditions of technological manufacturing or service sectors. High requirements to personal qualities of the modern worker are explained by the needs of modern society and high competition. The special value is currently owned by the skills and qualities of business communication and teamwork, of evidence and convincing arguments, making reasoned non-trivial solutions in work situations. On this basis, reasonably-reasoned skills and qualities can be considered systemically important component in the system of the individual competencies development. The effectiveness of the directional formation of skills and qualities to reason and to argue requires measuring materials and diagnostic techniques. Conceptual bases of study skills and qualities have established criteria for measurements and process data obtained by methods of mathematical statistics. Diagnostic results make it possible to monitor the dynamics of development, compare different in the number of students and the areas of training study groups, to assess the effectiveness of implemented educational technologies and techniques. As a result, proven diagnostics, used in the study, established a connection between the development of sensible and argue skills and qualities, with one hand, and the formation of general and professional competencies of the students, on the other hand. he study relates to the internal procedure following criteria: level of achievement; level of abstraction; level of awareness of learning; level of development of figurative and spatial concepts; analytical quality when working with professional information; and the following abilities: to establish causal relationships and dependencies; highlight the main, to formulate conclusions; to take a more reasoned point of view of a friend; to put questions, proceeding from logic of the business situation; to plan and implement activities according to the algorithm. The study relates to external procedural criteria emotional, volitional qualities, independence and quality of discreet business communication. Scoring criteria include: the kind of cognitive activity, the activity, the level of the operating basis of argumentation, the quality of rhetoric, general and professional competences.
FOREIGN SOCIAL PRACTICE IN THE FAMILY POLICY
UDC: УДК 37.013.42+364.044
Authors: Svetlana Leonidovna Shalaeva ;
The article describes the basic foreign social practices of work with the family as a basic social institu-tion prevailing in modern society. The family is seen as the most important institution of education and socialization, which is associated with fundamental functions of reproduction, conservation and sustainable development of a person and society. Under the influence of globalization are the rapid processes of change and deformation of traditional social institutions, values, life goals and meanings, connections and relationships of people that have a negative impact on the performance of the basic functions of the family. In the context of the transformation of the family as a social institution, the general factor of its conservation, adaptation and capacity, along with the self-organization of people is the state social policy. The present article describes the main foreign social practices used in modern family policy in many countries – to expand the network of kindergartens, child care during the day, financial support for families with children, services for sick child care for working parents, the establishment of family centers education and family counseling, services for organization protection of children from violence in the family, the organization of research centers on the study of family problems. It also describes substantive features of national forms of social assistance to the family practice in Sweden (Contact model of work with the family), the UK (Bridge family as a form of placing children), in Poland (Formation of a local cooperation network). According to the author, the more significant in today's social practices becomes open and prompt exchange of information and technology in this area at the level of different national experience.
DIAGNOSING PERSONALITY INCLINATIONS TO SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR BASED ON THE SPEECH ANALYSIS: METHODS AND APPROACHES
UDC: УДК 81'33
Authors: Tat'jana Aleksandrovna Litvinova ;
Suicide is one of the top external factors contributing to deaths particularly in youths. Therefore it arises a need to come up with methods to identify suicidal tendencies in individuals. Speech analysis, particularly quantitative one, is of great significance. Scientists are currently developing mathematical models to enable identification of suicidal tendencies of individuals based on numerical values of linguistic parameters of their written texts. This research is conducted using English materials. The article describes methods and approaches employed in the identification of suicidal tendencies in authors of written texts in Russian. This is the first time this problem has been tackled. It is not just the research material, which is a specially designed corpus of texts by suicidal individuals, that gives the problem a new dimension, but it is also the approach to choosing text parameters to analyze based on self-destructive theories currently dominating psychology, neurobiology of suicidal behaviour on one hand and neurolinguistic data on cerebral mechanisms of meaningful speech production as well as in terms of brain asymmetry and formulation of a mathematical task of this particular research on the other. It is shown that using the suggested methods and approaches new scientific data on language predictors of suicidal behaviour typical of individuals in Russian language (at different levels) can be obtained as well changes of correlation text parameters can be identified as suicidal tendencies progress.
ARTS CRISIS MANAGEMENT IS THE MOST IMPORTANT TASK OF THE PRESIDENT'S PRESS SECRETARY
UDC: УДК 328.132.7:159.9
Authors: Ekaterina Mihajlovna Fominykh ;
The article describes in detail the main functions and tasks of the President's press secretary. The most significant of these is the management of the crisis situation that has arisen in the country. The relevance of this topic is that in conditions of permanently extending the current STEP-crisis society is particularly in need of PR-specialists able relate crises and their consequences, as well as to work professionally with the media. The success of the head of the press-service is characterized by a high level of confidence in the organization of the society. To achieve this, the press secretary should operate in their activities only verified facts. Information provided by the press service must be complete and open, it is the most important principle of work of the expert in public relations. Any deviation from commenting any crises can cause a strong suspicion on the part of the audience, which will be extremely difficult to eliminate. PR-specialist is inextricably linked with the President, he is his personal representative and counsel in information disputes. Analysis of the Press Secretary of the President, interacting with the press in difficult situations for the researcher, of course, is very interesting and relevant. The article presents a person Dmitry Sergeevich Peskov as a talented specialist in public relations. In its activities, presidential press secretary uses the methods of information influence on society, in order to avoid conflict situations, as well as creating a positive image of the President and the government in general. As a tool of information influence are the media.
NATIONAL PECULIARITY OF THE PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS WITH SOMATIC COMPONENTS ВУЙ/ГОЛОВА/HEAD IN THE MARI, RUSSIAN AND ENGLISH LANGUAGES
UDC: УДК 811.511.151+811.161+811.111
Authors: Ljubov Alekseevna Abukaeva ; Alla Alekseevna Fokina ;
The article is devoted to comparative study of phraseological units of the Mari, Russian and English languages, modeled on the basis of somatic components вуй / голова / head. It aim is to identify and to characterize the idioms that are carriers of cultural and national information, as well as to describe the features of extra-linguistic reality, which seem relevant for the carriers of Mari, Russian and English culture and language. The number of phraseological units with regularity rethinking of the Mari people customs and traditions includes such expressions as вуйым пÿтыраш (literally: spin the head), вуй пулчаш (literally: wind the head). They symbolize the changing social status of women who got married. Phraseological units вуеш упшым (картузым) шындаш (упшалаш) огыл with value "have the determination to do or to accomplish something," refers to the views of the Mari people about the need to cover your head to protect it from damage and the evil eye. The Mari phraseology also contains and describes the abusive expressions, the main component of which is the token вуй. Among Russian phraseological units with the somatic component голова, which reflected the cultural-historical code, the following phraseological units were analyzed: без царя в голове – very stupid, narrow-minded; с царем в голове – very smart, intelligent, clever; outdated: царь в голове – someone with the mind, the thoughts, concerns, etc. In the English language among phraseological units with a somatic component head, referring to the corresponding culture and historical stage, the following phraseological units are described: to break Priscian's head 'to break the rules of grammar'; King's head 'postage stamp with the image of the King'; Pope's head 'broom for sweeping ceiling', and others.
CODE OF THE NOVEL “WAR AND PEACE” BY L. TOLSTOY IN THE STORY “MY NIGHT” BY B. ZAITSEV
UDC: УДК 821.161.1.09’’1917/1991’'
Authors: Nadezhda Anatolievna Ivanova ;
The study of biographical and creative communications of B. Zaitsev with predecessors and contem-poraries-writers expands reading of works, the creation of which clearly delineated the “trace” of this or that artist's words. Particular attention should be paid to the relationship of B. Zaitsev with his older contemporary, L. Tolstoy, whose work he highly valued. The projection of L. Tolstoy's work “War and Peace” on B. Zaitsev’s story “My night” reveals the deep subtext of the story. The reception of the code of Tolstoy’s novel in the story by B. Zaitsev is realized at the level of the system of images, conflict, motivation, acceptance of psychology, the use of allusions and reminiscences. The code of the novel “War and Peace” performs psychological (the description of the inner world of the hero, of his emotional state) plot-constructing (similar plot situations in the works of writers) and philosophical-conceptual (love as a blessing) function. The selected perspective of the research expands reading of the story, seeing new meanings connected with the area of formation and functioning of a literary text.
POETRY BY EKATERINA DOBROLYUBOVA (EVOLUTION OF THE WRITER'S VIEWS)
UDC: УДК 821.161.1-1
Authors: Igor' Petrovich Karpov ;
The article analyzes the work of a remarkable poet Ekaterina Dobrolyubova in the aspects of content and poetic form. She is from the Yurinsk District of the Republic Mari El. The life and work path of Ekaterina Dobrolyubova is divided into two periods – Yurinsk (with a short stay in Magnitogorsk) and Magnitogorsk (with constant visits in Yurino). The research investigated the temporary line of 1984. The challenge to understand the work of the poet in its integrity and completeness is interesting for us both in the local history aspect (keeping the memory of our wonderful poet), and theoretical. The main issue is: what does the poet gain after moving from a small village in a big industrial city, where there are several literary associations, society, seething with political and poetic passions, and several groups of poets of different aesthetic directions? The peculiarity of the poetry by Ekaterina is determined by the merger of naturalness of poet’s nature (the original sense of nature), and poetic culture, acquired through self-education and communication with the contemporary poets. Poetry of Ekaterina Dobrolyubova in the second half of the 1970s is a poetic maturity. Two trends became apparent in the poetry by Ekaterina Dobrolyubova to the turn of 1970–1980-ies. The first one is the people's optimistic trend. It is made out the second ideological and stylistic tendency in poetry Ekaterina Dobrolyubova – personal-elegiac, with an expression of their internal – often tragic – experience. Intonational wealth, bloom of rhymes, harmony of sounds, lexical diversity constitute the characteristics of a mature poetry by Ekaterina Dobrolyubova.
GRAMMATICAL SYSTEM OF AGGLUTINATIVE AND FUSIONAL LANGUAGES: REPRESENTATION OF THE LINGUISTIC VIEW OF THE WORLD IN THE POLYETHNIC URALS-VOLGA REGION
UDC: УДК 81ʼ44: 81:1
Authors: Anatolii Nikolaevich Kuklin ;
The article is devoted to the analysis of the grammatical system of the agglutinative (Mari, Tatar and Chuvash) languages and the fusional language (Russian) of the peoples living in the Urals-Volga region in the context of typological features and taking into account their differentiative and integrating factors. The Mari forms in comparison with the Russian and Tatar ones given together with the Russian transla-tion for both Mari and Tatar have been taken as reference points. In addition, it has been considered appropriate to include into the article composition such areas where the Mari language material trans-positions with the Chuvash one while saving the same conditions for their illustrations. The comparative analysis of the linguistic features of the Mari, Tatar and Russian languages is performed at the synchronic level together with the excursions into the characteristics of diachronic areal language phenomena.
ROLE OF INSECTS IN THE ERZYA FOLK TRADITION
UDC: УДК 82:396=511.152ю1
Authors: Svetlana Vasilyevna Pivkina ;
The article is devoted to people's perceptions of the world of insects. Their role is of great importance to human culture. Staying in constant contact with people, many of them left a very deep impression in mythology and folklore of various nations. Insects have a tremendous impact on the world around us. They played an important role at all stages of human existence, introducing a special section of the traditional picture of the world. In folk art the lives of insects is richly reflected. Their images can be found in myths, fairy tales, riddles, proverbs, etc. Insects are mentioned in the mythology of many peoples, such as Egyptian, Greek, Sumerian, Slavic. Their images appear on the pages of the Indian “Mahabharata”, the works of Herodotus, in the Bible. Insects are the most widely reflected in the folklore of the peoples of the tropics, because there insects are represented by the most diverse and numerous species. In the XXI century, as well as for many centuries, people continue to believe in the various omens, dreams, in many ways try to attract good luck, well-being. And this is not the last role played by insects, millions of years of living next to a human. The image of the insects is used in heraldry. Insects occupy a significant place in the history, culture and folklore of the Finno-Ugric peoples. We find the mention of them in a wide variety of folklore genres: riddles, proverbs, tales, legends, legends, etc. In folklore of Mordvins-Erzya insects are mainly associated with rites, rituals, beliefs. Apart from using the image of insects in the folklore and culture the Erzya people use them quite extensively in traditional medicine. The study, based on the classification developed by A. Gura, found that insects have some symbolic meaning, which manifested itself in a number of mythological notions about them in culture. The study examined the role of some insects (ants, bees, ladybug, cockroach, spider) in the traditions and rituals Mordvins-Erzya.
LEXICOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION OF MODERN FRENCH AND RUSSIAN NEOLOGY
UDC: УДК 811.131.1+811.161.1‘374
Authors: Fljora Jahijatovna Habibullina ; Natal'ja Jur'evna Smirnova ;
In this article the presence of political neologisms in French and Russian modern monolingual dictionaries is studied. Relevance of this research is caused by large using of new words in political discourse under the conditions of absence of specialized dictionaries explaining their meaning. The purpose of this article is studying of lexicographical description of modern political neology in French and Russian languages by method of continuous sampling of lexical items from general suite of new lexis, presented in monolingual dictionaries. The analysis of domestic and exterior researches in political neology is carried out. Among Russian lexicographical sources of modern words “The newest definition dictionary of Russian language of XXIst century” by Shagalova was chosen. Among French lexicographical sources the non-legible forms of established French dictionaries Le petit Larousse and Le Petit Robert are studied. Every year they publish neologisms and expressions changed their meanings in Les mots nouveaux section. The main ways of new word formation in political sphere are discerned: semantic, word-formative and loanword. Productive ways of political vocabulary accumulation are determined. The neologisms are organized into lexico-semantic groups, expressing two main concepts of political discourse: “authority” and “politician” (state/country, national symbols, parties/political movements and their participants and adherents/opponents, foreign/inner politics, governing bodies; chief of state and heads of bodies of government). Quantitative comparison of neologisms, relating to these lexico-semantic groups in French and Russian language is made