VESTNIK 4(24) 2016

VESTNIK 4(24) 2016
Date publication on the site:
2016-12-26 15:21:12
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UDC: УДК 378:004
Authors: Elena Jur'evna Balalaieva ;
The aim of the article is to analyze the essence of the concept “electronic textbook” in the dynamics of its development in the pedagogical theory and practice. Approaches to understanding of the concept “electronic book”, entered into use in the post-Soviet scientific continuum at the end of the 1990s, are characterized by large variability in determining its content and denotation. The range of opinions to its essence is quite wide and varies from identification with simple electronic analog of print edition to complex systems based on artificial intelligence. Problems of definition are caused by a relative novelty and complexity of the nature of the concepts, because there aren’t definite resolutions of scientific issues such as: place of electronic textbooks in the system of learning aids, theoretical foundations of design of their content and structure, distinctive features, didactic potential, functions in the learning process. Different approaches of contemporary researchers to understanding the essence of this concept are examined; its evolution from the pedagogical program means complementing traditional educational editions to self-learning multi-purpose tools are traced in the article. Based on analysis of popular definitions, the author proposed the definition of the electronic textbook as the electronic edition that reproduces in systematic form the content of the discipline in accordance with the approved standard curriculum and didactic requirements and couldn’t be transformed into printed edition without losing the didactic properties. At the same time, development and adoption of e-textbooks in teaching practice are in the process of dynamic development, therefore didactic meaning of this concept is constantly defined and concretized; so the question of definitions is still open.
UDC: УДК 378.38
Authors: Valentina Viktorovna Bahtina ;
Vocational education in modern conditions is focused on training specialists with their profession and key competencies, ready for professional mobility. The article compares the interpretation of the notions “competence” and “competency”. The research presents the results of the study of the level of the key competences formation of students of the Mari State University of the speciality “Health and Safety”, and of the bachelor degree “Health and Safety and Law” with pedagogical direction. These competencies were acquired through teaching practice. The study analyzes the dynamics of the key competences by groups (training, information and learning, communication, organizational, socio-significant), by courses, by years of study. The test questionnaire consisting of 20 statements concerning the formation of the key competencies, self-assessment method, quantitative and qualitative analysis of the results, were used as research tools. It was found that above all the students evaluate the ability to work freely with electronic information, the ability to establish contact with the students and teachers, the ability to work in a team. The ability to use the technology of studying and generalization of pedagogical experience, the ability to select and apply methods of pedagogical research, the ability to speak in public are less formed. There were also identified the challenges the students faced during teaching practice. The study draws conclusions about the appropriateness of the competency approach in vocational education and problems of its realization.
UDC: УДК 378.17
Authors: Irina Sergeevna Zimina ; Svetlana Asanovna Mukhina ;
The article deals with the actual problem of the organization of a healthy lifestyle at an educational institution. Based on the theoretical analysis of the research problem, the incompleteness of pedagogical interpretation of the concepts of health-saving educational environment, health protection, health-saving activities is shown. Qualitative conditions of health-saving environment largely determine the efficiency and quality of the results of the educational institution as a whole and the need to systematize the knowledge of the essence of health-saving educational environment and its role in the personality development.
UDC: УДК 378.2
Authors: Sergej Jur'evich Lavrent'ev ; Valentina Aleksandrovna Komelina ;
The article investigates the nature and content of such concepts as “competitiveness of the individual”. The phenomenon of competitiveness is among the least studied in the psycho-pedagogical, economic and administrative, philosophical, sociological literature, due to the complexity and versatility of the studied concept. In the course of the study of the phenomenology of competitiveness, the authors show that currently there is no single universally accepted interpretation in the scientific literature. Moreover, a characteristic of competitiveness is given with different completeness and in different aspects. It was found that the nature of competition and the phenomenology of competitiveness draws attention and becomes the subject of study of representatives of different sciences: social anthropology, pedagogical management, educational psychology, knowledge of economics, management of personnel and other. The article gives a biological, biophilosophical, sociological, social and philosophical, social and managerial, psychological, pedagogical, political and economical interpretation of the essence of this concept. The study revealed the origins of the understanding of the competitiveness of the person as a systematizing factor of development of society in general and the educational process in particular, which must be sought in the peculiarities of speciation processes, taxonomic divergence and the evolutionary development of man as a species and as a carrier of culture, that is, in its nature.
UDC: УДК 330.1:37
Authors: Kunash Askerovna Mamedova ;
The article considers the competitive relationship in the market of educational resources. The research means by competitive relations property relations that allow to compete on a par with a variety of competitors, ceteris paribus. It is noted that the purpose of the competitive relationship in the market of educational resources is the fulfillment of the social function of education. It was revealed that the institution enters into resource sharing and competitive relationship with the state, society, customers, employees and business partners of the university.
UDC: УДК 330.1:37
Authors: Kunash Askerovna Mamedova ;
The article considers the competitive relationship in the market of educational resources. The research means by competitive relations property relations that allow to compete on a par with a variety of competitors, ceteris paribus. It is noted that the purpose of the competitive relationship in the market of educational resources is the fulfillment of the social function of education. It was revealed that the institution enters into resource sharing and competitive relationship with the state, society, customers, employees and business partners of the university.
UDC: УДК 37.016:796-057.87
Authors: Valiry Timofeyevich Nikolaev ;
The relevance of the problem under study is caused by the fact that Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) of the components of the students’ body mass composition and the testing of their physical development through tests of motor proficiency in pedagogical process of physical education promote individualization of their motor load, formation of the students’ self-adjustment in the correction of the body, increase of their physical efficiency and the students’ pursuit for a regular physical activity. The aim of the article is to study and to set up a pedagogical technology of the educational process on the subject “Physical Education” in a university using the Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis of the components of the students’ body mass composition and testing their physical development through tests of motor proficiency. The main methods for studying the problem are Bioelectrical Impedance that helps to determine bioelectric indicators as well as the components of students’ body mass composition and the motor load testings of the development of basic physical qualities. The constitutional peculiarities are the basic component of the formation of general and special performance capability in sport and fitness. At the same time, body changes under the influence of specificity of training loads and increase of physical and functional training of students. Therefore, information about the components of the composition of body mass helps to individualize physical load during training lessons using a variety of physical exercises and sports. Students with higher values of the bioelectrical indicators (phase angle, reactance), active cell mass (ACM) and the percentage of the active cell mass dominate the physical and functional abilities compared with students with low physical development. These differences were statistically significant (P < 0,05). The reaction of the cardiovascular system was also significantly lower (P < 0,05) during the running load in the aerobic power saving mode. The practical significance of the article deals with the optimi-zation of training process of the fitness focus in Physical Education and in sport activities. Also, there is the acquisition of the skills in determining the balance between energy intake during the ingestion and its consumption by the students during physical activity.
UDC: УДК 378
Authors: Lyudmila Borisovna Tarenko ;
During pedagogical interaction that exists as a special form of communication between members of the educational and training process, there is the mutual enrichment of the intellectual, emotional, activity areas of everybody involved in the process. The goal of student-centered pedagogical interaction – constructing a favorable environment, promoting personal development of the student, forming of his moral attitudes. Personality-oriented interaction of the teacher with the students is the basis for the formation of students' analytical skills, ability to self-development, self-determination, self-realization. The article discusses the features of the use of information technology for the organization of student-centered learning, project-based method, which allows to increase the effectiveness of the educational process, the level of formation of analytical skills, to organize knowledge, as well as to individualize learning. Information technology can provide effective transfer of knowledge and active involvement of students in the educational process, increase learning effectiveness, and, to the maximum extent take into account the personal needs and characteristics of the students themselves. All this activates the development of self-learning skills, a specific competence working with sources of information, which in the future is a necessary condition for professional growth of the future specialist.
UDC: УДК 377.5
Authors: Anatoly Sergeevich Chibakov ; Dmitrii Aleksandrovich Krylov ;
The article is devoted to topical social and pedagogical problem: the development of cognitive activity of students of educational institutions of secondary vocational education. The study presents a brief analysis of the evolution of pedagogical views on the concept of “activity” and “cognitive activity”, since the 20-s of the XXth century. The article referred to the leading scientists who had studied the activity of the person in training, and the major periods of the formation of views on the issue under study. The study reveals the essence of the principle of didactic activity as an indicator of the realization of other learning principles. The article shows the relationship between the concepts of “activity” and “activities”, “activity” and “independence” and the essence of the process of activation of informative activity of pupils. The study substantiated opinion on the activity as a system-performance development of personality. The article highlighted the triune beginning of the activity of the individual in vocational training: activity as a social quality, teaching and cognitive activity, cognitive and communicative activity in a particular subject area. The article identifies the factors that ensure the successful development of an active person in the conditions of vocational training of skilled workers and mid-level professionals. The study established the source of cognitive activity – training contradictions. In order to diagnose cognitive activity of the individual, procedural and scoring criteria are separated. The study developed a method of assessing the development of cognitive activity of students, master working professions and specialties.
UDC: УДК 371.134
Authors: Natal'ja Alekseevna Yukina ; Irina Vladimirovna Vostrikova; Ljudmila Grigor'evna Filippova ;
The dynamics of economic development of society requires a comprehensive level of professionalism of graduates. It is necessary to develop the qualities, defined by competencies, along with general training. Senior students may already possess quite stable competencies, which only need to be “cut” like diamonds. In this sense, the project activities, from school to high school, will allow the young man to get the necessary practical experience in the implementation of any ideas, pans, to increase competitiveness, to become a successful and worthy representative of society. The implementation of projects helps to acquire the necessary competences of entirely different, higher quality.
UDC: УДК 159.9:81
Authors: Sergei Vladimirovich Malanov ; Lilija Hafizovna Habibrahmanova ;
The article deals with the dependence of the efficiency of the organization of mental action and sub-sequent playback of its semantic content on the order of the parts sentence as a part of the Russian-language statement (sentence). The study prepared by the empirical data, supporting the hypothesis that the translation efficiency of the semantic content of the descriptive text depends on the positions held by the parts of the sentence, as well as the position of statements (sentences) as part of the text.
UDC: УДК 81’37
Authors: Al'mira Rashidovna Akhmedzyanova ;
The article is devoted to an important problem of cross-cultural communication – finding the equivalents of lexems. The author analyses characteristic features of semantics of lexems with sound meaning in its synchronic and diachronic aspects, researching this material with the methods of linguistic culturology, semasiology and cognitive linguistics. The issue has a goal to find and characterize general and particular features in sound semantics. Attention is paid to the words with the meaning of “kinds of sound” and “features of sound” in the Russian, English, French and German languages. In this work these languages are called “basic European” ones, because they are used in international communication and are considered important to study as foreign ones to be successful communicator. This research helped to find general and particular features in constructing the one-word metaphors in every culture. The thematic glossary was a result of this work. It may be used by the foreigners to learn Russian, English, French, German.
UDC: УДК 070(470.4)
Authors: Alina Vladimirovna Barsukova ;
Within the multinational state there is a need of promoting of culture of tolerance, mutual respect and interethnic dialogue. In this regard the press role promoting harmonization of the interethnic relations increases. Extremism, racism, xenophobia, as historical experience shows, can lead to the conflicts, national tragedies and, eventually, accidents. The modern system of the mass media creates conditions for full interaction of the journalist and his audience – screen viewers, listeners, readers. Speaking about the main objectives of the mass media, it should be noted that it not only informs audience, forming these or those ideals, but also manipulates public consciousness. However, on the one hand, the mass media is the important political and legal institute which is a mirror of interests of any political forces (political party or the organization, industrial structure, etc.), but at the same time, not always interested in consoli¬dation and stability both in the country, and in her certain subjects. On the other hand, the tendency of growth of a role of mass media in the conditions of process of globalization of society occurs in the conditions of an aggravation of the international and ethnic relations. Collapse of the USSR, an aggravation of interethnic contradictions in the former Soviet Union including in the Russian Federation, have caused a problem of refugees and displaced persons. In this regard the last researches of the Russian press fix increase in publications in the central and regional mass media on the international relations in the country. The article considers the questions of ethno-cultural dialogue in mass media of the Volga Federal District and the relevance of cross-cultural communication.
UDC: УДК 821.161.1Лесков
Authors: Olga Sergeevna Berezina ;
The aim of this research is to examine the female images in the antinihilist novel “At Daggers Drawn” by N. S. Leskov. Influence of nihilistic doctrines, which took over the minds of contemporaries, espe-cially on Russian women, in whom N. S. Leskov saw custodians of national morality, worried the writer very much. The study of publicistic, literary and artistic heritage of N. S. Leskov suggests that, according to his outlook, the scope of the house is the main in a woman's life, and the family is assessed as a significant phenomenon of public and private life of a person. The image of women, perfect in terms of N. S. Leskov, is presented in his antinihilist novels. It was a response to nihilists with their views on women as emancipated personality of the new format. In this sense N. Leskov follows Метафора «духовная смерть» в лесковском произведении раскрывается в преступлениях против нравственности, которые совершает героиня: обман мужа, «двумужница», предательство подруги, соучастие в преступлениях Горданова и Висленева. Героиня осознает свое греховное состояние, но не видит пути к спасению, так как для нее «бессильно все, даже и религия» [3]. Итогом ее жизни становится самоубийство. По христианским понятиям, преступность этого греха состоит в том, что самоубийца возмущается против творческого и промыслительного божественного порядка и своего назначения, произвольно прекращает жизнь, которая принадлежит не ему только, но и Богу, а также ближним, и которая дарована ему для нравственного преуспеяния, а не для злоупотребления ею, – отрекается от всех лежащих на нем обязанностей и приходит в загробный мир непризнанным. Представляя в романе «На ножах» образ женщины «на перепутье», Н. С. Лесков утверждает концепцию духовного человека и христианскую идею спасения человека. В произведении Евангел Минервин просто и вместе с тем очень глубоко выражает авторскую позицию относительно женщины-спасительницы: «Женщины – это прелесть! Они наши мироносицы: без их слез этот злой мир заскоруз бы-с!» [3]. Именно с женщиной связана вера писателя в духовное возрождение че¬ловечества, в торжество нравственных идеалов. ______________ 1. Березина О. С. «Касса ссуд по залог движимости» (концепт «дом» в творчестве Н. Лескова) // Вестник Северного (Арктического) федерального ун-та. Серия «Гуманитарные и социальные науки». 2016. № 1. С. 112–116. 2. Березина О. С. Спасительница, утешительница, хра-нительница дома (женский идеал в романе Н. С. Лескова «На ножах») // Вестник Северо-Осетинского государственного университета имени К. Л. Хетагурова. 2015. № 2. С. 131–134. 3. Лесков Н. С. На ножах: роман. URL: (дата обращения: 14.09.2016). 4. Старыгина Н. Н. Роман Н. С. Лескова «На ножах»: Человек и его ценностный мир. М.: Прометей, 1995. 114 с. Статья поступила в редакцию 12.10.2016 г. the tradition of contemporary anti-nihilistic writers. In their works the positive heroine act as inhabitants, that put priority on home and life, so the positive or negative characters are shown in their ability or inability to family life and motherhood. N. Leskov describes three types of women in the novel – ordinary, passionate and “at a crossroads”. The writer argues the ideal, from his point of view, image of a woman, with which he connects the concept of the spiritual man and the Christian idea of human salvation.
UDC: УДК 82.0
Authors: Igor' Petrovich Karpov ;
The article explains the terminological status of the notion of “world duality”. The study argues the idea of the semantic content of a separate term in a particular field of terminology, in the conceptual unity of the terminology.
UDC: УДК 413.11
Authors: Anatolii Nikolaevich Kuklin ;
Considering different methods used for reconstructing of the ancient hydronyms a leading place belongs to the methods and techniques of comparative and contrastive linguistics, aimed at large-scale historical and cultural investigation, using linguistic data of relative and unrelative languages and their dialects, involving materials on spiritual and material culture of neighbouring nations, information on ethnological and paleoanthropological investigations. Elimination of regionalethic and natural geographic data, requiring rigorous analysis and complicating the process of research, will inevitably lead to distortions and inaccuracies in the interpretation of the toponymic material. In this connection it should be noted more typical errors in the application of linguistic methods for analysis of onomastic material and appellative lexeme that is in a geographical name. The origin of a river name (potamonym) is often explained incorrectly because researchers identify multilingual words by external similarity, excluding genetic sources. Herewith, ethnohistorical, substrate and adstrate factors are not taken into account. In the etimological explanations inconsistencies and contradictions are often found in the interpretation of the content of ancient hydro- and topo- which are in the geographical objects of the Middle Volga. The reason for misunderstanding of the name is that modified on the basis of a different language it can be matched with its outlook with the other lexeme expanding the range of heterogeneous homonyms and after some time it can lose its original semantics incurring significant rethinking. The accuracy of the explanation of its original meaning is possible only on the basis of “chain” recon-struction relying on phonological occurringin the substrate lexemes, by their sporadic isoglosses, sur-vivedin the dialects of Uralic, Turkic- Slavyano-Russian languages. It is impossible to operate with distorted forms when etimologyzation. Accuracy interpretation of the toponym origin and semantic content depends on how objectively and reasonably analyzed linguistic facts. The origin and meaning of individual content potamonimov restaurants incorrect due to the fact that investigators ignored arealno- linguistic isoglosses. Only some errors in the application of linguistic methods and interpre-tation techniques in the analysis of river names are marked here.
UDC: УДК 398.21.81
Authors: Muradgeldi Soyegov ;
This article is devoted to the description of the book by Wilhelm Harteveld, published in 1914 under the title “Among the shifting sands and severed heads”. The study examined the reflection in the book of Turkmen oral and musical folklore samples that were written by the author of this publication from the lips of music performers and narrators in 1913 in the Trans-Caspian region. He was invited to visit the house of the Turkmen-elder of an aul of Keshi near Ashgabat, where especially for him concert featuring local performers had been arranged. In addition, he also met Turkmen singers in Ashgabat. Besides folklore materials, this book also provides valuable data describing the national mentality of the Turkmen people. For example, according to him, the Turkmen is hospitable, honest, truthful, egoistic and extremely proud. Turkmen women create the most beautiful, durable and valuable carpets. The author claims that he had never seen or even imagined the possibility of the existence of such a beautiful horse, which he saw in Ashgabat stables. The book contains the texts of the folk song about capture Geok-Tepe and a folk tale, contained in the annex to this article. The study points to serious errors (distortions) made by the author when transferring to Russian Turkmen personal names and some other word-realities. The individual issues of the so-called individual psychological multiculturalism are also put. According to the author, the collective (social) multiculturalism should ideally consist of a plurality of individually-psychological multiculturalism of members of a society.
UDC: УДК 821.161.1
Authors: Inna Gennad'evna Chesnokova ;
The article examines the works by Alexander Kuprin, which entered into the “Polesye Cycle”: “Backwoods”, “Hunting Wood Grouse”, “Olesya” in terms of social and natural. The study defined themes, the imaging system, the function of the nature of these works.
UDC: УДК 81-13
Authors: Tat'jana Mihajlovna Shkapenko ;
The paper contains a study of the nature of interjections as linguistic signs in synchronic and diachronic perspective. Views of various scientists about interjections in the light of the semiotics theory become the subject of analysis. Special attention is paid to the contradiction which is present at many works between the statement about groundlessness of interjections interpretation as sign units and simultaneous statements of their status of signs or signals. On the basis of the words “sign” and “signal” analysis in explanatory dictionaries and in works of philosophers and psychologists the reasons of observed contradictions are established. The difference between ordinary idea of essence of a sign and understanding of the word as sign unit within semiotics approach concerns to them. In unscientific representation the sign nature of interjections is more tangible, than the sign nature of words described by semiotics. The brevity, morphological invariance and combination with paralinguistic means belong to inherent properties of an interjection’s sign. From the point of view of addresser interjection is short and convenient means of reflection his internal state, and the signal of it’s emergence for addressee at the same time. From the semiogenetic point of view various classes of interjections represent various stages of language formation. Primary emotive interjections are characteristic for pre-semiotic stage, onomatopoeias are the first iconic signs having an external reference, and conative interjections are the first attempts of signs symbols producing.
UDC: 634.75
Authors: Marina G. Markova ; Elena N. Somova ;
The rooting ability of garden strawberry in culture in vitro depends on physical conditions of cultivation and passes without much difficulty, but the acceleration of the rhizogenesis process with a shortening of the rooting stage is of great interest. The article presents the results of studies on the joined effect of the growth regulator HB-101 added to the nutrient medium and combined lighting (red, blue, white light) on the rhizogenesis of strawberry micro-shoots in culture in vitrо. The aim of the work is to study the influence of the spectral composition of light and the growth regulator HB-101 on the rhizogenesis of garden strawberry in conditions in vitro. The influence of the growth regulator HB-101 was studied by adding it to the Murashige-Skooga nutrient medium at stage rooting, under joined application the traditional auxin of indolyl-butyric acid (IBA). The micro-plants of strawberries were cultivated under LED irradiators with a ratio in the spectrum of red, blue and white light of 2: 1: 1, 1: 1: 1, 1: 2, respectively, the control lamp was a fluorescent irradiator LPO 30-17 with white light lamps. It was found that the joint application of the growth regulator HB-101 and LED installations with a ratio of red, blue and white light 2: 1: 1 and 1: 1: 1, respectively, led to a 100 % rooting of the strawberry micro-shoots and a reduction of rooting stage by 10 days. The addition of the growth regulator HB-101 to the nutrient medium at a dose of 50 μl / l generally contributed to a significant increase in the rooting of strawberry micro-shoots. LED irradiation installations of different spectral composition, in comparison with luminescent, also contributed to a significant increase in the rootedness of micro-shoots and to the improvement of the root system of microplants.
UDC: 636.4:636.082.265
Authors: Rafail A. Fayzullin; Marat R. Sayfutdinov;
The aim of the research was to study the reproduc-tive qualities of the sows of large white breeds under crossing with Yorkshire boars. Two groups of sows with 15 heads each according to the principle of analogs taking into account the origin, live weight and age were created for a research. The sows at the age of 12 months with a live weight of 130–140 kg, were covered manually by boars-producers of large white breed and Yorkshire breed. Reproductive qualities of sows of large white breed were assessed by multi-plicity, nest weight at day 21, nest weight at 2 months, number of piglets at 2 months and survival rate of piglets. The complex indicator of reproductive qualities was calculated from the data of the reproductive qualities of sows. In the course of the study, it was revealed that the sows of a large white breed as under pure breeding, so under crossing with boars of the Yorkshire breed have had almost the same indicators by the prolificacy, the number of the piglets at 2 months and survival rate of piglets. However, the sows of the combination (LW × Y) differed from the peers combinations (LW × LW) by the most high indicators of the mass of the nest both at the birth of pigs, and at their weaning in 2 months. Herewith reliable difference between the sows of large white breed combined (LW × Y) and (LW × LW) by mass of the nest under birth piglets was  1,04 kg (P > 0,99), and by mass of the nest at 2 months  7,14 kg (P > 0, 90). Difference by the complex index of reproductive qualities between the sows of a large white breed under different breed combinations: (LW × Y) and (LW × LW) was  3,16 points (P < 0,90), in favor of the combination (LW × Y).
UDC: 37.013.77
Authors: Anzhelika V. Gut; Anzhelika V. Gut;
Introduction. The relevance of the formation of psychological and pedagogical competence of coaches (sports teachers), connected with the peculiarities and risks of coaching, is considered in the work. The work of a coach in modern conditions is determined by a new status: the demand for sports teachers is gaining a social scale within the framework of population’s health improvement programs, within the framework of organization of healthy leisure of young people, within the framework of formation of new values and life priorities of younger generation. This need is fixed in all state educational standards in the form of general cultural and professional competencies. Purpose. To consider and compare the development of analytical, prognostic, projective, reflexive, organizational, information and developing skills of students of the direction “Physical Cultureˮ of the Volga Region Academy of Physical Culture, Sports and Tourism as the basis for the formation of psychological and pedagogical competence. Materials and Methods: Analysis of the results of survey of 1st and 4th year students of the direction “Physical Cultureˮ of the Volga Region Academy of Physical Culture, Sports and Tourism, as well as analysis of the expert evaluation of the Academy teachers and employers (teachers of secondary schools and coaches of sports schools, for which students were assigned in practice). Results, discussion. The study demonstrates positive dynamics of development in most indicators. Observed qualitative growth indicators: projective and predictive skills; students emphasize the need to develop projective skills as a primary indicator of the professional maturity of young teachers; reflexive and organizational skills; these skills are indicators of intrapersonal development, including the development of communication skills; information and developmental skills; the development of these skills is facilitated by the saturation of the Volga Region Academy of electronic information resources; analytical skills and efficiency of knowledge; these skills are associated with scientific and theoretical activities, and the greatest development is obtained in the master's degree. Conclusion. The study confirms the practical orientation of the bachelor's degree in the direction of “Physical Cultureˮ of the Volga Region Academy of Physical Culture, Sports and Tourism. There is also a high need for disciplines of psychological and pedagogical profile. The general conclusion is that the university lays a positive dynamic in the development of professional competence.
UDC: 631.52.11;633.15
Authors: Yuri A. Lapshin; Vladimir A. Maksimov; Rimma I. Zolotareva;
One of the most accessible ways to stabilize the production of feed grain in the north-east of the European territory of Russia is to expand the species and varietal diversity of forage crops, in particular, by increasing the acreage of triticale. The study of grain productivity of spring triticale varieties, depending on the level of mineral fertilizers, was conducted in the Mari Research Institute of Agriculture – branch of the FASC of the North-East in a two-factor experiment: Factor A is a cultivar of spring triticale: Rovnya (St), Saur, Khaykar, Dobroe, Zaozerye. Factor B – mineral fertilizers: Control (without fertilizers), N30P30K30, N60P60K60, N90P60K60.The tested varieties are able to form a high yield of grain and total biomass. With an increase in the rate of mineral fertilizer application, the duration of the growing season increased. The most late-ripening varieties were Dobroe and Zaozerye. Varieties Saur, Dobroe and Khaykar provided almost the same level of productivity against the background of the main application of N60P60K60 and N90P60K60, no significant increase of grain yield (LSD05 – 0.21 t/ha) from increasing the dose of nitrogen was identified. Yields in the Saur variety were 4.74 and 4.69 t/ha, in Dobroe variety – 5.02 and 5.03 t/ha, in Khaykar variety – 5.34 and 5.36 t/ha, respectively. Variety Rovnya (St) in grain yield was not inferior to all tested varieties only against an unfertilized background. The efficiency of mineral fertilizers on Zaozerye and Saur varieties was higher when applied at a dose of N60P60K60. The maximum yield of 5.47 t/ha was formed by plants of Zaozerye variety, the increase in relation to the variant without the use of fertilizers was 0.66 t/ha, or 13.7 %. The highest payback of mineral fertilizers by yield increase was revealed in two versions of the experiment – when cultivating the Dobroe and Khaykar triticale varieties against the background of the main fertilizer application at a dose of N60P60K60 and amounted to 5.6 and 5.7 t/ha, respectively.
UDC: 378.1
Authors: Vera I. Toktarova; Svetlana N. Fedorova;
В статье рассматривается проблема оценки эффективности адаптивной системы обучения, характеризующейся приспособлением к конкретным условиям процесса обучения в зависимости от кри- териев, направленных на совершенствование и улучшение качества обучения. Цель данной статьи – теоретическое обоснование алгоритма использования диагностического инструментария для оценки эф- фективности адаптивной системы математической подготовки студентов в условиях электронной ИОС вуза. Материалы и методы. Материалами исследования послужили научные работы, в которых рас- сматривались вопросы диагностики и оценки уровня математической подготовки студентов в ада- птивных системах обучения с использованием информационно-коммуникационных средств. В иссле- довании были использованы теоретические, эмпирические и математические методы. Результаты исследования. Система оценки эффективности адаптивной системы математической подготовки студен- тов представлена нормативно-организационными, психолого-педагогическими, программно-техничес- кими, коммуникативными, кадровыми критериями. Каждый критерий был раскрыт через конкретные показатели, которые в дальнейшем измерялись и оценивались. Для ранжирования выделенных групп критериев / непосредственно самих критериев в группе / соответствующих критериям параметров в раз- работанном диагностическом инструментарии был использован метод анализа иерархий (МАИ) Саати. Заключение. Разработанный диагностический инструментарий позволяет проводить мониторинг резуль- тативности математической подготовки студентов вуза в контексте электронного обучения. Рационально выстроенная диагностика результативности математической подготовки в рамках разработанной модели ориентирована на улучшение учебного процесса путем определения пробелов в математической подготовке студентов и дальнейшей коррекции процесса обучения.
UDC: 947(47):34
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Oleg. A. Lipatov;
Introduction. The coups d'etat at the beginning and at the end of the XX century in the Russian state in both cases formed a new historical reality. In the context of the destruction of the old and the formation of a new so-ciety, approaches to ensuring state security were formed. The article examines the historical conditions for the formation of approaches to understanding the conceptual and normative components of the content of ensur-ing national security during periods of coups d’etat at the beginning of the 20th century and in the 90s of the 20th century. Purpose: to compare current situations, political conflicts, driving forces of transformation, con-sequences and their impact on the formation of the conceptual foundations of national security. Materials and methods. The paper uses regulations related to security issues during the revolutionary transformations of the early 19th century and early 90-ies of the 20th century. The article uses general scientific methods (description) and special historical methods (historical-comparative). Research results and discussions. Changes in the coun-try’s economic and political structure as a result of political cataclysms entail the formation of a new under-standing of security objects. At the same time, the transition to a new system of state security is based on the scientific and human resources potential of the previous era. Conclusion. Thus, the national security compo-nents are significantly influenced by the traditions of understanding security, which are carried out by specialists who train the personnel of the relevant executive authorities and the specifics of the state economy.
Regional market of milk and dairy products: trends, factors and directions of development
UDC: 339.138:637.12/14
Authors: Yulia V. Reshetkina; Olga A. Stolyarova; Svetlana N. Alekseeva; Alexander A. Ivanov;
Introduction. The problem of providing the population with milk and dairy products remains relevant today. The purpose of the article is to analyze the market for milk and dairy products in the Penza region, the main problems of its development and to propose the main directions of functioning. Research methods are monographic, economic-statistical, abstract-logical, balance, method of analysis. The authors analyzed the de-gree of self-sufficiency of the region in milk and dairy products, and also considered a number of reasons that have a negative impact on the development of the market for milk and dairy products. Among them, one can single out: a reduction in the number of cows in agricultural organizations and personal subsidiary plots of the population, the absence of mutually beneficial relations between agricultural commodity producers of raw milk and processing organizations, a decrease in the purchasing power of the population, etc. In the course of the study, an analysis was made of the provision of milk processing enterprises with raw materials. The idea is argued that in order to satisfy the population with a sufficient volume of dairy products, it is necessary to achieve a correspondence between the production volumes of raw milk and the production capacities of processing enterprises. According to the authors, in order to increase the efficiency of dairy cattle breeding, economically significant federal and regional programs for the development of this industry should be implemented. In the Penza region, dairy cattle breeding should be investment-attractive, and for this, modern large closed-cycle dairy complexes are being built in the region thanks to “Rusmolco”. Such dairy complexes not only increase gross milk production, but also create conditions for the primary processing of milk, which improves the quality of raw materials. Processing enterprises of the region, in conditions of high competition, are expanding the range of final products produced to maintain their positions in the market of milk and dairy products. In the Penza region, a large processing enterprise is OJSC “Penzensky Dairy Plant”. Conclusion. The authors made a conclusion about the improvement of pricing for raw materials sold. Processing enterprises should purchase raw milk at prices conducive to increasing the profitability of the commodity producer and ensure the level of profitability of milk production at the level of 55−60 %.
Control activities of tax authorities in the Republic of Mari El in 2019−2021 in the context of the concept of openness
UDC: 332
Authors: Ramziya K. Shakirova;
Introduction. The era of the information society places high demands on the completeness and quality of available information. Solving problems related to the effective development of the state and society requires the formation of management models based on the active participation of civil society and the use of public control mechanisms. The improvement of models for the implementation of state functions in developed countries is based on ensuring the interests and needs of citizens, on the interaction of different subjects of society and on the growth of the volume of available and high-quality information. To get rid of nihilism in the field of tax relations, these measures are especially relevant. The purpose of this study is to assess the results of the control activities of the tax authorities in the Republic of Mari El for the period from 2019 to 2021 in the context of openness of the data of the Federal Tax Service of Russia. Materials and methods. The work uses a classic set of general scientific methods of scientific research, including methods of formal logic and economic-statistical methods. The basis for the study was the data of statistical reporting of the Federal Tax Service. Results, discussion. According to the reporting data of the tax authorities of the RME for the period under review, there was a decrease in the number of audits (both field and desk). Based on the results of all field inspections, violations were found and additional payments were charged. The share of desk audits that revealed violations in 2021 amounted to 4.0 %. The amount of additional charges for field inspections in 2021 increased by 138 % compared to 2019. Conclusion. A complete analysis of the results of the control activities of the tax authorities in terms of its effectiveness is difficult due to the lack of open information. At the same time, on the basis of open data, indicators can be calculated that reflect the general trend in the field of tax control and serve as a guideline for building business strategies for taxpayers.
The SVE system as an element of regional economic development.
UDC: 311
Authors: Natalia K. Shvetsova; Andrey V. Shvetsov ;
Introduction. In modern realities, the state is forced to pay more and more attention to the real sector of the economy. And if a few years ago the state's economy developed sectorally, including due to the policy of the Central Bank to curb domestic investment. The financial regulator tried to fight inflation in this way until re-cently, mistakenly assuming that only a reduction in lending to individuals and private businesses is able to keep inflationary processes within the established framework. Currently, it is necessary to actively develop all indus-tries in cooperation and planning all actions among themselves. It should be noted that it is necessary to start changes in the economy with the education system, in particular the vocational education system. We believe that the system of secondary special education is the most important element of training middle-level specialists for the domestic economy, a tool for training working professions that are so in demand in our country now. In this regard, there is a scientific and practical task of assessing the degree of influence of indicators characterizing the state of the system of secondary vocational education in the regions of the Russian Federation on the gross regional product of these subjects. The GRP of the region is selected as the resulting indicator reflecting the fi-nancial and economic situation of the regions of the Russian Federation. The purpose of the study is to test the hypothesis about the degree of influence of the indicators of the SVE (secondary vocational education) system on the gross regional product of the regions of the Russian Federation. Materials and methods. The study ana-lyzes the official statistical data of Rosstat, uses multidimensional statistical methods of cluster, correlation, re-gression analysis and appropriate software. Conclusion. It should be emphasized that the results of the analysis should be applied to specific regions and only within the considered time ranges.
Domestic economy and finance during a special military operation
UDC: 338.2
Authors: Andrey V. Shvetsov ; Natalia K. Shvetsova;
Introduction. The configuration and structure of the Russian economy is currently export-oriented and a large share of all cash flows in the country is tied to export raw materials revenues. The situation is aggravated by the fact that Western countries impose restrictions on the supply of Russian products, including trying to artificially limit the price ceiling for energy raw materials. It is obvious that our society is going through a turning point, solving military, social and economic problems. The article characterizes the current state of the domestic economy and the actions of the financial regulator in the first half of 2022, and also gives short-term forecasts limited in accuracy by rapidly developing events. The purpose of the article is to analyze the current trends in the development of the financial and economic system of the Russian Federation at the present stage, taking into account external and internal factors. Materials and methods. The work uses materials from periodicals, data on the financial and economic state of the domestic economy as a whole and its branches. Research results, discussion. Today, there are all prerequisites for the implementation of a geopolitical scenario beneficial to the country. It is necessary to boost the Russian economy by implementing the paradigm of advanced growth based on a new technological order using modern management tools and a new institutional structure of the country. In the domestic economy, logistics and financial flows are being restructured, important management decisions are being made that rebuild the “consciousness” of business and society as a whole. Conclusion. Despite the fact that the Russian economy demonstrates high stability in the conditions of a hybrid war with the West and aggressive sanctions pressure, it is necessary to increase efforts at all levels of management and production to reduce the negative consequences in the domestic economy.
The effect of vegetable fats on the viscosity of sour cream
UDC: 637.053
Authors: Lilia M. Sufyanova; Tatyana V. Kabanova; Elena G. Shuvalova;
Introduction. Currently, in order to reduce the cost of dairy products, manufacturers are developing milk-containing products with the addition of ingredients of non-dairy origin. Sour cream is a product with a high fat content, so manufacturers have not bypassed it. On the shelves of the store, you can notice the appearance of products called “sour cream product” or “product made using sour cream technology”. Most often in such products, there is a partial replacement of milk fat with vegetable fat. For the first time, the term “sour cream product” was introduced by GOST R 51917-2002. The Sour cream products have valuable properties for producers and a number of consumers: they have lower calorie content, lower cost, and longer shelf life. However, there is not enough information about the effect of vegetable fats on the rheological parameters of the sour cream product. Based on the above, this area of research is of interest. The purpose of the article is to determine the changes in the viscosity of sour cream and sour cream product depending on the use of milk fat substitutes. Materials and methods. The objects of the study were two samples of sour cream and one sample of sour cream product with milk fat substitutes. The viscosity of the products was studied on a Brookfield rotary viscometer, at different spindle speeds. In addition, samples were compared by acidity and fat mass fraction. The results of the study. During the study, it was revealed that the sample of sour cream product had a more viscous consistency than sour cream samples produced according to GOST. This dependence is explained by the fact that in the production of sour cream products, stabilizers are used to obtain a homogeneous mixture (consisting of a dairy component and vegetable fats), which increase their viscosity. Conclusions. Based on the results of the experiments, it can be concluded that the sample of sour cream product had a more viscous consistency compared to the samples of sour cream. In addition, in the sample of the sour cream product the acidity was lower, which has a positive effect on the safety of the product.
Characteristics of breeding and productive qualities of Ayrshire cattle bred in the conditions of the Republic of Mari El
UDC: 636.082
Authors: Lyudmila V. Kholodova ;
Introduction. In the current conditions of cattle breeding development in the country, dairy cattle breeding requires animals with not only a high genetic potential, but also characterized by a high level of dairy productivity. Purpose: the study of breeding and productive qualities of Ayrshire cattle bred in the conditions of the Republic of Mari El. Materials and methods. The studies were conducted in ZAO “Mariyskoye” of the Republic of Mari El. The object of research was dairy cattle of Ayrshire breed. Results, discussion. At present, Ayrshire cattle bred in the farm are purebred and of the elite-record class. The herd is young, the average age of cows is 3.4 calving. On average, 6876 kg of milk with MFF − 4.5 %, MFP − 3.34 % is obtained from one cow per lactation. The level of milk productivity of cows exceeds the requirements of the 1st class standard in milk yield by 76.5 %, in MFF by 3.4 %, in the amount of milk fat by 26.2 %. The cows exceed the standard by 12−20 % in live weight and have excellent exterior for dairy cattle. Currently in the herd there are animals belonging to 5 lines. The cows of the Urho Errant and O.R. Lichting lines yielded more than the average for the herd (7017 kg and 6930 kg, respectively). Cows of the S. B. Komandor line were the most fat-dairy and cows of the Sneeperum SRB line were the most protein-dairy. The herd produces daughters from 19 bulls. The producers used on the farm were characterized by a high genetic potential for productivity. Landscape daughters had the highest milk yields. Conclusion. It has been established that Ayrshire cattle bred in the conditions of the Republic of Mari El are derived from highly productive ancestors and are characterized by excellent for dairy cattle exterior. The level of milk productivity of cows exceeds the requirements of the 1st class standard of the breed.
Diagnostics of the thyroid status of cows in the iodine deficiency zone
UDC: 619:616-07:616.4
Authors: Alfiya R. Shageeva; Olga A. Gracheva; Dina M. Mukhutdinova; Bulat F. Tamimdarov;
Introduction. The dynamics of the functional activity of the thyroid gland in cows kept in the iodine-deficient territory of the Republic of Tatarstan has been studied. Iodine deficiency leads to various diseases of animals, to a deterioration in the quality of livestock products, causing significant damage to livestock. In the form of monomicroelementoses, these diseases in cows occur rarely and often with a hidden clinic, which makes it difficult to diagnose and develop preventive measures in a timely manner. Most often, various polymicroelementoses are registered in animals, which are characterized by an imbalance in the content of several trace elements. Materials and methods. To determine the thyroid status of cows, we conducted clinical and laboratory studies in a number of farms in the Arsky district of the Republic of Tatarstan. The study of the dynamics of the content of iodine, thyroid hormones and thyrotropin in the blood was carried out in 25 clinically healthy cows of Holstein black-and-white breed. Research results. When determining protein-bound iodine in the blood of cows during the stall period, a decrease in this indicator was found in winter with an increase in concentration by May. Fluctuations in the concentration of iodine in the blood of cows affect the functional activity of the thyroid gland. The lowest concentration of thyroid hormones is observed in the month of April with a correlative increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone. A decrease in the functional activity of the thyroid gland occurs due to a more active form of thyroid hormones − triiodothyronine. A decrease in the activity of the thyroid gland coincides with cases of congenital goiter in calves.
Testes of offspring of laboratory mice at prenatal administration of experimental doses of estrogen
UDC: 637.5.04
Authors: Leysan F. Yakupova; Ellada K. Рapunidi; Sergey Yu. Smolentsev;
Introduction. To date, the production of food products from rabbit meat, which contains a large amount of protein, essential amino acids, vitamins, minerals with a low fat content, is very promising in the meat industry. Due to these properties, the demand for rabbit meat, which is widely used in dietary nutrition, has increased. The purpose of this work was veterinary and sanitary examination of rabbit slaughter products when using the Zdravur feed additive in the diet. Materials and methods. The research and production experiment was conducted on the basis of a rabbit farm on rabbits of the California breed divided into 2 groups of 10 heads each. The duration of the experiment was 31 days. The control group did not receive the feed additive Zdravur and received the feed taken on the farm. The experimental group of animals in addition to the main diet received the Zdravur feed additive at a dose of 2 g per 1 kg of granulated compound feed. After completing the experiment, 2 rabbits from each group were slaughtered. Veterinary and sanitary examination of slaughter products included organoleptic, chemical, bacteriological evaluation of slaughter products according to the Rules of veterinary inspection of slaughtered animals and veterinary and sanitary examination of meat and meat products. Research results, discussion. In the rabbits of the experimental group, the presence of a higher carcass weight was noted, which was greater than the control by 231 g (11.5 %). Visual inspection of rabbit meat of the experimental and control groups showed good bleeding of the carcasses. All meat samples had a well-defined drying crust. After 24-hour storage, the rabbit meat of the control and experimental groups had the same rate of leveling the pits on the surface after pressing with a finger. The content of protein, fat, and ash in meat was higher in the animals of the experimental group. In animals of the experimental group, in comparison with the control, the energy value of meat was higher (by 8.4 %). Conclusion. The use of the Zdravur feed additive for rabbits does not cause pathological changes and improves the quality of slaughter products according to organoleptic, physico-chemical and bacteriological indicators, which meets the requirements of GOST for good-quality meat.
Digital transformation in resource-supplying organizations
UDC: 378.1:338.24
Authors: Yuliya A. Filenko; Inga V. Verevkina;
Введение. Для того чтобы отвечать современной политике в области энергетики и климата, энергетическим и коммунальным компаниям необходимо разработать и создать свою устойчивую цифровую инфраструктуру. Это позволит организациям эффективно «держать руку на пульсе» цифровых платформ и сервисов, учитывать в своей деятельности нововведения, которые диктует время, и при этом оставаться конкурентоспособными на рынке услуг. Целью данной работы является изучение применения цифровой трансформации в ресурсоснабжающих организациях для совершенствования процессов, минимизации затрат и прогнозирования возможных поломок. Материалы и методы. При подготовке статьи использовался системный подход и анализ информации материалов интернет-ресурсов, публикаций ряда авторов, практическое моделирование. Результаты и обсуждение. Цифровая трансформация в ресурсоснабжающих организациях сегодня − это стратегическая цель, инструмент повышения эффективности организации в современных условиях, которая обусловлена как социальными, так и технологическими изменениями во многих отраслях. Она позволит сохранить ресурсы при осуществлении инвестиционных программ, а также предоставит новые возможности в области сетевой инфраструктуры и позволит увеличить маржинальность бизнеса в компаниях. Заключение. Применение цифровых решений позволит компаниям в будущем подготовить и осуществить внедрение новых технологий и проектов, повысить безопасность путем снижения киберрисков, усовершенствовать бизнес-процессы, осуществлять контроль и регулирование технологических установок, а также повысить производительность.
Land tenure institutions in the context of innovation activity and efficiency of the agro-industrial complex
UDC: 332.2
Authors: Svetlana V. Poltorykhina;
Introduction. The organization of rational and efficient use of agricultural land resources is largely determined by land relations, an increase in the level of technology and the growth of industrial competition, which in turn determines the consistent development of the agro-industrial complex as a whole. The purpose of this article is to analyze the institutions of land tenure and land use that have been formed and are operating on the territory of the Russian Federation, their assessment and determination of their role in the innovative processes of agro-industrial complex development and digital transformation of agriculture. Materials and methods. Within the framework of the conducted research, methods of analysis and synthesis, system analysis, as well as historical-evolutionist institutional methods were applied. The materials are collected from official sources. Despite the certainty of the goal in the development of agriculture, there are problems in the formation and functioning of land tenure and land use institutions. Thus, 92.2 % of the total land fund remains in state and municipal ownership, and over the past 15 years this share has decreased by only 0.2 %. The problems also relate to the issues of subsidies, insurance, inconsistency of laws and mechanisms of their implementation with the goals of scientific and technological development. One of the most pressing problems is the search for a vector and sources of modernization of the innovative and institutional environment of the agro-industrial complex, the creation of an adaptive regional development management system aimed at reducing the differentiation of intra-industry development, increasing industrial development and economic independence of the regions of the Russian Federation. Conclusion. The legal and development institutions that have been formed and are functioning in the Russian Federation make it possible to identify new prospects in understanding their potential, role and strategic importance both for the agro-industrial complex and the economy as a whole, and for effective and rational land use in particular. The assessment of the current state and key problems of the agro-industrial complex as a whole and its main production resource - land, making forecasts of scientific and technological development of the agro-industrial complex, especially in the field of crop production, the development of new priorities of agrarian policy in the field of land use and land tenure clarifies the directions and forms of improving the activities of development institutions in the agro-industrial complex of Russia and the regulatory framework.
The project of the excursion tour “Along the Riverside”
UDC: 338.48 (378.1)
Authors: Polina G. Nikolenko; Marina V. Efremova; Tatiana F. Gavrilyeva;
The article proposes a project of an infrastructure facility “Along the Riverside” for tourists and the local population on the bank of the Volga River. Introduction. Nizhny Novgorod is an active city today with its great heritage since 1221. The glorious city received the blessing from Grand Duke Yuri (George) Vsevolodovich, grandson of the founder of Moscow, Prince Yuri Dolgoruky and great-grandson of Kiev Prince Vladimir Monomakh. Traders from different parts of the world came here through two full-flowing rivers, namely, water trade routes, convenient location contributed to technological revolutions and grandiose fairs. And cruise tourism is a relatively new direction that allows you to extend the operational life of the selected vessel and provide a lot of new positive emotions from the range of services provided and the study of tourist destinations in Russia. Having a direct value of a tourist product and services in the form of tourists’ access to attractive natural sites and historical architectural space of an ancient city, it is always possible to implement both individual projects and entire tourist complexes. The purpose of the article is to evaluate a small business project for cost recovery. Materials and methods. Code of inland water transport of the Russian Federation. Sanitary rules for sea and river ports. Technical regulations on the safety of inland water transport facilities. Fire safety and noise level requirements. Methods of rationing and control of running time and fuel consumption. When drawing up the financial plan, the standard industry model USALI (Uniform System of Accounts for the Lodging Industry) was used. Taking into account the amendments in the new version of the Tax Code for 2023, a single payment was approved without a breakdown by type of contribution. Results, discussion. The project is aimed at the implementation of a comprehensive tourist program in the water area of Nizhny Novgorod and the operation of the ship. The infrastructural structure under consideration is a motor ship, has a well–formed structure, where participants actively interact with each other. With the development of domestic tourism, the operation of the ship is gaining stable leadership positions in the cruise tourism industry of the region. Conclusion. The implementation of the project is a profitable business process, cost recovery will be achieved in the first year of navigation, and a synergistic effect (economic, social, cultural, educational, environmental) will also be obtained
Students’ universal competencies: content and means of their development
UDC: 378-057.875
Authors: Natalya G. Arzamastseva; Valentina V. Konstantinova; Svetlana A. Arefyeva;
Introduction. The article deals with the problem of the development of university students’ universal competencies. Universal competencies are a set of individual personality characteristics that contribute to achieving success in the profession. The Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education has defined eight groups of universal competencies (FSES HE 3++): systemic and critical thinking, project development and implementation, teamwork and leadership, intercultural interaction, etc. The development of universal competencies of university students is implemented in the following areas: educational process, educational and practical activities, research work. It should be noted that teachers have serious difficulties in choosing methods for studying the level of formation of universal competencies, since their nature is activity, not knowledge. In modern didactics, the issue of assessing universal competencies remains debatable. We are of the opinion that an electronic portfolio should be used to assess the development of students’ universal competencies. The electronic portfolio of students is a collection of student achievements, works, documents submitted electronically on the website of an educational institution. Filling out an electronic portfolio by students allows solving the following tasks: to evaluate the effectiveness of student self-development, to develop the ability to objectively assess the formation of competencies; to develop motivation for scientific and educational achievements; to encourage student activity and independence; to develop the skills of reflexive and evaluative activity of students; improve the skills of planning their own activities. The achievements recorded in the electronic portfolio enable the teacher to consider the prospects of professional and personal development of students and assess the formation of their universal competencies. Indicators of the formation of competencies are: the development of creativity of the individual and his project thinking, his ability to analyze, readiness for communication between participants in the educational process; the development of design skills, communicative abilities, leadership qualities, the ability to interact with project participants; development of business communication skills, development of the ability to apply modern communication technologies using technical means of interaction, etc. The purpose of the study is to consider the features of the development of students’ universal competencies and identify typical difficulties in their assessment. Materials and methods: theoretical analysis of the literature on the research problem, questionnaires and their quantitative and qualitative processing.
Integrated assessment of food security of the DPR
UDC: 338.439
Authors: Anastasiya A. Dryndak;
Introduction. Food security is one of the most important aspects of the life of any society. Guaranteed access to quality food in sufficient quantity is an inalienable right of every person. However, in conditions of economic instability, ensuring food security is becoming a particularly urgent problem. In turn, the integral assessment of food security is a relevant tool that helps to understand the complexity of the problem, identify the main challenges and develop effective strategies and measures to ensure food security in the modern world. The purpose of this work is to form an integrated assessment of the food security of the Donetsk People’s Republic. Materials and methods. To achieve this goal, various data sources were used, such as scientific publications and studies related to food security, agriculture and the food industry; statistical reports of the Government of the Donetsk People’s Republic. When writing the article, methods of analysis and synthesis were used, the Harrington’s desirability scale was chosen as a mathematical tool. Research results, discussions. Despite the special role of food security in the socio-economic development of the country, its assessment takes into account only the level of self-sufficiency of the country and its regions with food. The existing methods of assessment and analysis do not take into account a number of indicators reflecting market, economic and social aspects of food policy. Thus, the formation of the country's food security strategy should be based on an objective analytical base, the basis of which is methodological support. Conclusion. The application of the developed integrated assessment of food security provides an opportunity for regions and the state to assess the current level of food security. The use of the Harrington’s desirability scale simplifies the conversion of quantitative indicators into relative ones.
Lean supply chain management: an overview of methods and approaches
UDC: 338.001.36
Authors: Rodion S. Rogulin; Natalia P. Belozertseva;
Introduction. Lean supply chain management is one of the areas of management in supply chain management, it is based on the philosophy of continuous improvement and elimination of waste. This direction has a large number of branches and modifications. The purpose of this work is to study such tools and methods of supply chain management as Value Stream Mapping System, Kanban System, Production Total Quality Management. Materials and methods. The article presents the advantages, problems and limitations of lean supply chain management methods. As advantages, the improvement of the quality of manufactured products, the creation of a socially responsible business model, the reduction of waste and the conservation of natural resources, the increase in customer satisfaction, the reduction of lead times and the increase in the company's competitiveness in the market are named. The main limitations in implementing lean supply chain management principles can be the high initial investment required for implementation, resistance to change by suppliers and employees, the difficulty of measuring results, especially in terms of quantifying its impact on customer satisfaction and profitability. The article provides examples of overcoming emerging limitations. These examples highlight the importance of careful planning, implementing and monitoring lean initiatives to ensure their success in the supply chain. Results. In the course of the study, a review of approaches to the implementation of lean supply chain management was carried out, the positive and negative aspects of each approach were considered, taking into account modern modifications and the experience of their application. In conclusion, a review of the literature is made and the main directions for further research are identified.
Tsarevokokshaysk merchant class in the post-reform period (60s‒80s of the XIX century)
UDC: 94(470.343)"1860/80"
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Sergey V. Starikov;
The merchant class in the Russian Empire was one of the wealthiest, enterprising and educated classes. The state has always patronized merchants. In turn, merchants, entire merchant dynasties served their Fatherland faithfully. The guild merchants were a corporation of merchants who, during crucial periods in the life of the country, sought not only to fulfill their direct duties, to increase their trading capital, but also participated in public life, in reform activities, supported many initiatives of the authorities. In the small towns of the empire, their contribution to the development of urban and rural infrastructure, solving social issues, and culture was especially significant. This article examines the merchants of the city of Tsarevokokshaysk of the Kazan province in the post-reform period, the main attention is paid to the characteristics of the activity of merchants Tikhonovs. The purpose of the article is to consider the contribution of merchants of Tsarevokokshaysk to the development of urban economy and culture in the 1860s‒1880s. The article uses archival materials to present the main directions and forms of merchant activity. The article is written on the basis of the principles of historicism and objectivity using methods of analysis, comparison, description. On the eve of Alexander II's reforms, a peculiar change of merchant elites took place in Tsarevokoshaysk. After a certain decline in merchant activity, a new period of activity of this estate begun, which coincidentally coincided with the reformatory activity of the state and was reflected in the creation of the first large industrial institution, the active participation of merchants in the development of local self-government, charity and culture. Thus, a new generation of Tsarevokokshaysk merchants, the first of whom were the Tikhonovs, took an active part in the development of urban infrastructure, charity, education and culture.
National minorities of the Turkic peoples and interethnic interaction in the Republics of Mordovia and Mari El, Ulyanovsk region: ethnosociological study
UDC: 93/94
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Alexey I. Mineev; Elena K. Mineeva; Tatyana N. Ivanova; Alexey N. Starostin;
The purpose of the article is to study interethnic interaction in the regions of the Russian Federation, as well as to study the Turkic peoples living as national minorities in neighboring regions of the country, where Finno-Ugric peoples and Russians predominate (the Republics of Mari El, Mordovia; Ulyanovsk region), through conducting a sociological survey in 2023. Methodologically, the authors follow the fundamental principles and methods of historical and sociological research. The principle of historicism, a social-constructivist approach, as well as survey methods, comparative historical, statistical, in-depth interviews, and historical imagology were used. More than 800 young people were interviewed in the studied regions of the Russian Federation during 2023, the survey was conducted in regional capitals, namely in the cities of Yoshkar-Ola, Saransk, Ulyanovsk. In all 3 regions studied, the majority of respondents identified themselves as Russians. The results showed that in the Republics of Mari El and Mordovia, despite their national status, the largest percentage of ethnically homogeneous families was recorded. In the Ulyanovsk region this percentage is much lower. The vast majority of respondents in all studied regions are well acquainted with their national culture. A separate block of questions was devoted to cross-border interaction. The majority of the population in the subjects of the Russian Federation under consideration are Russians, at the same time, representatives of the Turkic peoples occupy one of the most important places in these regions. As the study showed, the least impact of assimilation processes on the Turkic population is in the Ulyanovsk region. In Mari El and Mordovia there is a very high proportion of those who identify themselves as Russians, despite their Turkic and Finno-Ugric roots. An important conclusion, in the authors’ opinion, is that the vast majority of respondents do not see any grounds for interethnic and interreligious conflicts. The absence of obvious conflict potential is determined primarily by the traditional historically determined close interaction and contacts of neighboring regions of European Russia.
Preparing future primary school teachers for the development and implementation of a research lesson
UDC: 373.3:37.016
Authors: Nadezhda D. Glizerina ; Elena V. Maltseva; Svetlana A. Arefeva;
Introduction. The article is devoted to the problem of preparing primary school teachers for the development and conduct of a research lesson. The importance of the formation of research skills of primary school students in accordance with the third generation of the Federal State Educational Standards is substantiated. The structure of the research lesson, as well as the algorithm for its construction, is presented. The article reveals the concepts of “research”, “research activities”, “research skills”, as well as the components of basic research activities of primary school students. The purpose of the study was to identify the level of formation of skills of 3d‒4th year students in the direction of training 44.03.05 Primary education and computer science in the field of preparing and conducting a research lesson. In the course of the study, such methods as testing and solving professional problems were used. The analysis of the diagnostic results was carried out taking into account the fact that 4th year students were familiar with the research lesson, its specifics, structure and methods of organizing the work of schoolchildren within the disciplines “Methods of teaching literary reading in primary school” and “Methods of teaching the Russian language in primary school”. Fourth-year students also completed assignments for the development of a research lesson with its subsequent demonstration at a practical lesson in the discipline. Similar preparatory work was carried out with 3rd, 4th year students who participated in the Young Professionals Championship (WorldSkills Russia), including within the framework of the discipline “Methods of teaching mathematics in primary school”. The rest of the 3rd and 4th year students did not undergo this training. A comparative analysis of the results of the tasks performed by the subjects in the context of cognitive, reflexive-evaluative and activity components of the readiness of future teachers to organize research work of junior schoolchildren was carried out. The significance of the participation of future teachers in the WorldSkills Russia (“Young Professionals”) championship in the competence “Teaching in junior grades” is substantiated, which positively influenced the results of preparing and conducting a research lesson, in particular, from the standpoint of the activity component. The authors of the article formulated recommendations on the theoretical and practical preparation of future primary school teachers for the development and implementation of a research lesson.
Development of students' communicative skills by means of project activities
UDC: 378
Authors: Natalya G. Arzamastseva; Zinaida Yu. Maksimova;
Introduction. The article examines the problem of developing students' communicative skills by means of project activities. Communicative skills are a set of actions of a person that allow her to consciously use communicative knowledge to organize communication and joint creative activity. The purpose of the study is to substantiate the expediency of using project activities in the development of students’ communicative skills. Materials and methods. Theoretical analysis of the literature on the research problem, generalization, testing. Research results, discussion. Groups of communicative skills have been studied and analyzed: socio-psychological (the ability to organize communication in teaching activities, stimulate educational motivation and cognitive activity of participants in the educational process, predict the results obtained, formalize a statement in writing, express their thoughts orally without distortion, etc.), communicative and organizational (the ability to plan the process of communication in a group, interpret and control this process, coordinate their actions with the team, listen to the opinions of other participants, consider the needs of fellow communicators), information and communication (skills of polite communication, the ability to navigate partners, correlate means of verbal and non-verbal communication, actively and attentively listen to a partner, follow the rules of communication culture, express your thoughts emotionally and meaningfully using gestures, facial expressions, symbols, listen and delve into the essence of the problem, ask questions), affective and communicative (the ability to share feelings, take care of a partner, assess the emotional state of another). The structure of students' communicative skills is theoretically substantiated, and the possibilities of project activities for their development are determined. The use of project activities in the classroom solves the following tasks: the development of educational motivation and a sense of responsibility for the results of work on the project, the acquisition of new skills in the design of the results of general work, improving the research ability that allows the student to navigate the flow of information, its analysis, the development of speech abilities during the argumentation of their point of view, the protection of the results obtained. Conclusion. The results of this study can be useful for theoretical and practical application to teachers of higher and secondary professional educational institutions engaged in training design specialists, as well as in the creation of advanced training and professional retraining programs and programs of additional professional education.