- VESTNIK 1(21)/2016
- Date publication on the site:
- 2016-04-04 14:04:41
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Content all 25
DESIGNING THE PROCESS OF STUDENTS’ TOLERANCE DEVELOPMENT AT THE TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY BY MEANS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES
UDC: УДК 378.147:802/809
Authors: Il'khamiya Iskhakovna Galimzjanova ; Elina Irkovna Murtazina ;
The article lays stress on the imperatives of developing students’ tolerance in the system of higher education in Russia and the necessity of defining the theoretical background of this process. The research has been made by analyzing Russian and foreign scientific works on the theory of intercultural competence and tolerance. The authors justify the choice of the main methodological approaches, principles and conditions of learning process, as well as the methods of training and education of students at the Kazan national research technological university by means of foreign languages. Communicative competence, person-oriented, activity, problematic and cultural approaches are the main approaches for the modeling of the tolerance development process. Consciousness, person orientation and action character as well as creative character serve as the general didactic principles. Communicative character, close-to-life communication, emphasis on the native linguoculture are the particular methodic principles. Subject-subject approach, self-development, teacher’s tolerance, business English are treated as the key conditions of the effective organization of the tolerance development process. The authors emphasize the necessity of using both traditional reproductive and active methods of teaching – study in cooperation, problem solving, case study, biography reflection, imitational modeling, self-esteem and role-play. Consciousness formation while story-telling, talking, discussing, teacher’s personal example, organizing the students activity through the instruction, stimulating in the form of encouragement are the upbringing methods. All mentioned above approaches, principles, teaching and up-bringing methods and the conditions of learning process organization are in the basis of the author’s textbooks.
LINGUODIDACTIC TESTOLOGY: METHODOLOGY OF ASSESSING THE LEVEL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE DEPARTMENT BACHELOR STUDENTS’ PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCIES
UDC: УДК 378:81
Authors: Tat’yana Ivanovna Zaburdaeva ; Inna Valerʼevna Kazantseva ; Anna Leonidovna Kolyago ; Ol’ga Borisovna Shestakova ;
One of the most important tasks of the Federal Targeted Program (FTP) of education development for the period of 2016–2020 is developing the system of assessment of the quality and results of education. The main approach of the program is a “project-goal” approach unlike the classical approach of the Federal Targeted Program of education development for 2011–2015. Many teachers know nothing or very little about testology, it leads to non-compliance with the requirements of the international standard IMS QTI concerning the structure, contents and form of tests and the requirements of the quality management system applied to the process of developing, producing and selling tests and program products. Validity and reliability are traditionally regarded as the main criteria of test quality assessment. Calculation of numerical data is made with the help of experimental-statistic methods based on the empirical analysis of the test results. The article is dedicated to the theoretical and methodological requirements to tests in foreign languages in accordance with Common European Framework, to the methods of constructing high-quality tests and the development of certification technology, which will guarantee proper evaluation of students’ academic progress at the institutions of vocational training. The article gives some generalization of the world and domestic experience in developing and evaluating tests in foreign languages in the context of university teacher training. Besides, much attention is paid to the succession of actions aimed at determining the expected percentage of fulfilling the test by the participants of the experiment. At the same time, special emphasis is placed on the opportunities by the educational platform LMS Moodle in the process of evaluating the competence level of bachelor students of Foreign Language Department.
DIFFICULTIES OF LEARNING CAUSATIVE STRUCTURES AMONG THE TURKIC-SPEAKING AUDIENCE
UDC: УДК 81:001.4/16.01.45
Authors: Janyl Ablyazovna Kaldybaeva;
The article is devoted to defining the difficulties among the Turkish-speaking students of mastering prepositional-case structures and determining their causes. Mastering the use of the various features of causative constructions, depending on the style of speech, presents certain difficulties for the Turkic-speaking audience. As practice shows, the study of prepositional-case combinations and complex sentences with subordinate part of the reason is the great challenge for the students of the national audience. The main difficulty – is the value of the reasons due to the complexity and diversity of expressions of causal relations in the Russian language and speech style. The paper gives a detailed analysis of the difficulties associated with the diversity and complexity of expressions of causal relations in the Russian language, as well as the difficulties caused by the interference of the native language. The research results show that in order to overcome the difficulties associated with mastering the structural features of the causal complex sentences of the Russian language, systematic speech training in the use of causal proposals should be carried out. It is advisable to carry out tasks for creating the causative structures after the patterns to control of correctness, to perform exercises to replace the position of the paranasal parts translated from the native Russian language and vice versa.
PRODUCTION (PRE-DIPLOMA) PRACTICE IN THE PROGRAM OF PREPARATION OF BACHELORS OF PEDAGOGICAL EDUCATION
UDC: УДК 378:371.38
Authors: Sergej Gennad'evich Korotkov ; Dmitrii Aleksandrovich Krylov ;
The article is devoted to the actual problem of the organization of production (pre-diploma) practice of the future bachelors of pedagogical education. The article presents an analysis of the experience in the organization of production (pre-diploma) bachelor practice towards pedagogical education “Technology”. The focus of the work is on the fact that the production (pre-diploma) practice is an integral part of the process of preparation of the future bachelors. The article analyzes the objectives, general and special problems of production (pre-diploma) practice. Generalization of experience in organizing experimental and research work in the production (pre-diploma) practice of bachelors of pedagogical education allowed the authors to propose a number of requirements for the implementation of the final qualification (bachelor's) work. The article analyzes the problems and difficulties of organizing and conducting production (pre-diploma) practice of the future bachelors of the profile “Technology”. Generalization of experience of the organization of production (pre-diploma) practice has allowed to put into scientific circulation the term “special skills” necessary to the future bachelor of the profile “Technology”. This term is also supplemented by a list of specific, design and technological skills necessary to the future bachelor of the Profile “Technology”. The authors of the study identify design, technological, economic and graphic skills. Without these skills, it is impossible to form a qualified teacher, a professional bachelor, able to carry out successfully the work in accordance with the requirements of the professional characteristics of the State standard of higher education. The authors examine the key stages of production (pre-diploma) practice summarizing the theoretical questions. Considerable attention is paid to the description of functions and responsibilities of supervisors. The study substantiates the idea that the production (pre-diploma) practice of the future bachelors aimed at deepening the student initial professional experience, developing of general and professional competences, checking its readiness for self-employment. Analysis of the experience of the organization of production (pre-diploma) practice of the future bachelors of the profile “Technology” leads the authors to the conclusion that in all cases it is necessary to start the organization of a number of key provisions that will certainly be of interest to supervisors and teachers of pedagogical education area.
COMPETITIVENESS OF THE FUTURE SPECIALIST: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF TRAINING IN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS OF UNIVERSITY
UDC: УДК 378.2
Authors: Sergej Jur'evich Lavrent'ev ; Dmitrii Aleksandrovich Krylov ;
The article deals with the main socio-economic and educational preconditions for the formation of the future professional qualities, which form a solid foundation for the successful implementation of competitive behavior. The new requirements of the market environment to prepare students prompted the authors of the study to the analysis of possibilities, to review the prerequisites of formation of competitiveness of the future specialist in educational process of the university. The study indicates the following group of socio-economic and pedagogical preconditions of formation of competitiveness of the future specialist in educational process of high school. The first group of preconditions is associated with multifaceted and ambiguous process of a paradigm shift in the educational sphere, with the emergence of a new concept of education that meets the growing needs of the individual and dynamic society in the conditions of implementation of innovative learning technologies. The second group of preconditions related to the peculiarities of the Information Society: an increase in the volume of produced information, an increase in the consumption of information, the development of modern information technologies. The third group of preconditions arises in connection with the integration processes in education: the development of training systems throughout life (lifelong learning), the continuity of levels of education, modernization of academic disciplines, the introduction of new disciplines, formed on the basis of the principle of integration. The fourth group of preconditions is based on the solution of the problems of education quality: increased requirements to the level of professionalism of teachers; changing expectations placed upon education; expansion of the range of human development, educational opportunities of the individual. In the context of the current conditions of modernization of education, the study identifies the theoretical approaches to the definition of individual qualities, formulates theoretical and practical base of research competitiveness of the graduates. Particular attention is focused on those factors that preclude the implementation of the competitive behavior of the person.
DESIGN OF EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES IN THE EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATION AS AN ELEMENT IN UPBRINGING OF THE REAL CITIZEN AND PATRIOT
UDC: УДК 37.001.63
Authors: Valerii Vladimirovich Lushchikov ;
The article considers the problem of designing the educational process in educational organizations. The study examined the use of events associated with the anniversary of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War, as the basis for the construction of the educational system. The authors examine the existing experience in organizing events aimed at promoting patriotism among youth in vocational educational institutions of the Chelyabinsk region. Russia, which has appeared in a difficult economic and foreign policy conditions, must respond to the challenges of time. Unfortunately, at this moment in Russia there are problems with the organization of patriotic education of youth. Development of patriotism is seen as a necessity and one of the most effective ways of leveling the various conflicts and teen parenting issues. The article describes the main problems in the design of the educational process in the educational organization and the formation of patriotic students. Design process is presented as an effective mechanism for the development and implementation in practice of teachers of educational activity projects.
INTEGRATED APPROACH TO GRANTS MANAGING AT UNIVERSITY CHAIR
UDC: УДК 378
Authors: Marina Sergeevna Mamontova ;
The article is devoted to the problem of adjustment and management of research activities at the modern University. One of the most effective ways to develop University science and to bring its performance up to the level of world standards is thematic complexity and integrity of the research. The activities of the University as a whole is composed of individual structural units named chairs. Main directions of scientific activity are: educational, scientific-methodical activity, postgraduate students training, preparation and publication of monographs, and promotion of research students, etc. However, based on the context of the current situation in the scientific field of our country, the authors highlight the following areas: widespread use of grant and commercial contract activities in the implementation of collective and individual research projects. The example of the separate Chair of socio-cultural technologies of the Mari State University expounds an approach to building research activity of separate structural subdivisions. The article reveals the essence of the comprehensive research – sociocultural institutions and cultural practices in the Republic of Mari El. The study substantiates its choice, which is due to multi-ethnicity of the region and the real dynamic processes taking place in the culture of the Republic of Mari El in the Finno-Ugric culture in general. Since 2009 (the date of foundation of the Chair) substantial material on various aspects of social and cultural development of the Republic of Mari El has accumulated state and development of museums, library network, education in the field of culture. The article presents a brief description of the projects, which are aimed at the study of social and cultural activities of the institutions and cultural entities in the creation, development, distribution, modification, preservation and transmission of cultural values and products.
PROBLEM OF FORMATION OF FUNCTIONAL FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC LITERACY OF COLLEGE STUDENTS
UDC: УДК 377.112.4
Authors: Elena Stanislavovna Russkih ;
In the new socio-economic circumstances, the process of training of graduates of professional educational organizations should be focused on the development of competencies conducive to the realization of the concept of “education through life”. It is established that a prerequisite for the development of competence is a certain level of functional literacy. Conventionally, the level of functional literacy should be fixed in the expressions: “a Modern citizen, Russian... should know and be able...”, and is defined for each country with specific cultural and regional development. Modern re-searchers define functional literacy as a socio-economic phenomenon and attribute the level of its formation on the welfare of the population and the state as a whole. That is why issues of literacy become relevant only when the question is about the elimination of the arisen gaps in a particular field of knowledge. At the level of country development strategy objectives related to improving financial and economic literacy included in the list of priority directions of state activity. Formed functional financial and economic literacy acts as an important factor contributing to the increase of stability of the financial system, increase the overall competitiveness of the Russian economy, ensures the stability of the financial well-being in the long and short term. As one of methods of research of process of formation of the functional financial and economic literacy of students of non-core specialties of the College used simulation method, which allows to study the object using the constructed model. The model takes into account the integration of objectives, tasks and functions of each structural component forming the financial and economic literacy content, organizational forms, technologies and complex teaching conditions. The educational process in the framework of the developed model is characterized by flexibility, variability and mobility. This allows the teacher to respond quickly to economic changes occurring in society, the demands of society to the level of training and to offer relevant material for students of different fields of study.
FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE AMONG STUDENTS WITH USE OF REMOTE TECHNOLOGIES
UDC: УДК 378
Authors: Lyudmila Borisovna Tarenko ;
The constant development of the technology industry defines a completely new tasks and operating principles for higher education institutions: not just quality of education in the narrow framework of a future profession, but also teaching students a wide range of professional skills that can help to quickly and effectively to assume their responsibilities in the production environment. Changing requirements for the preparation of bachelors is associated with the emergence of theoretical and practical problems of a new type, characterized by systemic and interdisciplinary character, originality, no unambiguous and simple solutions. In a rapidly changing information society, there is not just the need for a specialist who can perform the work in a particular area, but a person capable to develop new, autonomous decision-making, ready to self-education and capable to self-transformation. Relevance of the work is due to the need to find new approaches to the formation of professional qualities of future specialists in the field of information technology. Dynamic, innovative nature of the IT industry leads to a “modernization” of the content of the traditional professions, defines new features professionals possession of which became an integral part of professionalism in the field of IT. The article describes the features of the application of remote sensing technologies in the training of students of information-oriented areas of training and questions of practice-oriented approach to the formation of professional competencies of students.
INTEGRATION OF COMPETENCE-BASED AND CULTUROLOGICAL APPROACHES IN DESIGN AND CREATIVE ACTIVITY OF STUDENTS INTEGRATION
UDC: УДК 378.147
Authors: El'mira Robertovna Khairullina ; Leysan Raisovna Fathullina ; Irina Vyacheslavovna Vjatkina ;
The article discusses the emergence of the category “competence”, the concept of “corporate culture”, shows the importance of competence-based education. The study highlighted three core competencies that relate: to the person itself as an individual, subject of activity and communication; to human social interaction and the social sphere; to human activities. The article reveals the essence of these competencies. The study highlighted 9 corporate competencies required for most high-quality design and implementation of creative activity. The research examined the formation of corporate culture in the performance of students of design and creative tasks, defined the concept of “corporate culture of the student.”
RUSSIAN LANGUAGE OPTIONAL CLASSES AT SCHOOL
UDC: УДК 811.161.1:371.214.19
Authors: Tat'yana Anatol'evna Khristolyubova ;
This article is devoted to the methods of optional classes in the Russian language at school. Optional classes in Russian language are an essential component of all educational work in school. These studies were introduced for the first time in the 1967-1968 academic year. This paper discusses general issues of teaching discipline “Optional and elective courses in the Russian language in schools” in high school on the Historical-philological faculty of the Mari State University: goal, objectives and content of the discipline. The article lists the knowledge and skills of students, which is necessary to form in the study of this discipline. The article proposes tasks and questions for the study of the topic “Diversity of elective courses in the Russian language programs in the school” at practical classes. The study also provides a list of references to the subject.
TRAINING OF STUDENTS OF THE FACULTY OF PHYSICAL CULTURE, SPORTS AND TOURISM FOR COMPETITIVE ACTIVITY
UDC: УДК 796.015
Authors: Natal'ja Veniaminovna Yambaeva ;
The article is devoted to the problem of training students of the Faculty of physical culture, sport and tourism for competitive activity that forms an integral component of professional training of future specialists in the field of physical culture and sports. The article deals with the basic concepts – competitive activity, physical fitness. Competitive activity involves the demonstration and assessment of capabilities of athletes in various sports under their inherent rules, the content of motor actions, methods of competitive struggle and evaluation. Specificity of competitive activity largely determines the direction and content of the training of athletes (principles, selection tools, techniques, control, etc.). Competitive activity is closely linked with the sporting result. This necessitates a careful study of the contents of competitive activity, identifying the factors that determine the achievement of high sports results. An integral part of the preparation of physical fitness of students appears to competitive activity. Physical readiness is the possibility of functional systems. It reflects the level of development of the necessary physical qualities that determine competitive success in a particular sport. Physical training is one of the parties in the preparation of physical education, sports-related education of physical qualities (strength, speed, endurance, flexibility and coordination abilities). General physical training is the process of improving the motor physical qualities, aimed at the full and harmonious development of the physical person. Special physical preparation is a process of physical qualities and skills development, which are a prerequisite for rapid mastering specific techniques.
COMMON TRAITS OF TEND TO ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOR AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
UDC: УДК 159.922.7:376
Authors: Tat'jana Nikolaevna Golovanova ;
The purpose of this study is to examine the features of display of dependencies among university students. It was hypothesized that university students are prone to various types of addictions and have special features of addictive be-havior, among which we can highlight the gender differences and differences in types of learning activities (specialties). University students took part in the research. Data analysis allowed to state the presence of very high levels of predisposition to addictive behavior. The study of gender differences in students' predispositions to dependencies has revealed clear differences in such kinds of inclinations to addictive behavior as “labor addiction”, “food addiction”, “drug addiction”, “sex addiction”. The study analyzed the manifestations of each depending on the specialties of the faculties. It was found that belonging to this or that faculty does not affect the development of tendencies to addiction among students. In addition, the study analyzed the changes in characteristics of tendencies to various addictions when going from course to course. The research found significant (p < 0,01) changes depending on such types as “computer addiction”, “labor addiction”. Thus, the study found that the following group of subjects of the educational process showed the average propensity to addictive behavior
FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND FREEDOM OF THE PRESS AS FACTORS LEADING TO CONFLICTS IN SOCIETY
UDC: УДК 070:316.485
Authors: Evgenij Valerianovich Suslov ;
The problem formulated in the article was the result of the necessity to identify the causes of conflicts in the process of implementing the regime of the press freedom and the speech freedom. There is a need in the proof of the thesis that there is no destructive component in such conflicts, in the proof of the presence of the public good provided its institutionalization. The author also has the task to determine the degree of inconsistency between these social phenomena, which under certain circumstances could escalate into a conflict that deserves research attention. The results of the research were the conclusions that, firstly, in a democratic state system, conflicts, generated by the media as a result of realization of the principle of freedom of the press, were perceived as usual and even desirable phenomenon, because these conflicts appear like one of the indicators of political stability of the state. Secondly, some of the citizens, perceiving freedom of the press as a natural and inalienable right, have information illusiveness from lack of adequate information and an inability to discuss actual topics in habitual informational areas. Third, there is a direct connection between the freedom of the press and free elections, as the will of voters expressed in the elections can be effective when it is the product of a wide spectrum of opinions at informing. Fourth, the most important factor in strengthening the contradiction between the freedom of the press and freedom of speech is a violation of professional ethics, committed by journalists. Namely - a violation of professional duty and professional conscience, which challenge the journalists to inform the audience objectively and completely.
MARI TABOOS: ON THE NATURE AND SPECIFIC
UDC: УДК 811.511.151+398
Authors: Ljubov' Alekseevna Abukaeva ;
The article presents the analysis of genre of Mari folklore – bans. The author determine the specificity of the genre, reveal the connection of the genre with other ones of folklore. Bans go back to the ancient pagan conceptions of the people, when objects of worship were created in the era of tribal cults, and a certain system of beliefs and view had developed in relation to them, including a variety of beliefs, superstitions and taboos. The harmony of the composition, briefness of ойöрö provide its availability, durability of assimilation; the inclusion of bans in genres such as a fairy tale, a song, a legend, short story and others facilitate visibility of perception, consistency and continuity in education and training. The function of bans is that they were designed to emphasize respect to the objects of worship. Compliance was meant to ensure the protection of higher forces, safety and welfare of the genus and family, as well as the individual.
ARTISTIC PROSE RHYTHM IN THE NOVEL BY I. GONCHAROV “AN ORDINARY STORY”
UDC: УДК 821.161.1
Authors: Gul'zada Gadul'yanovna Bagautdinova; Innokentij Sergeevich Radygin;
The authors of the study refer to the little-studied aspect in the works of Ivan Goncharov – artistic prose rhythm. The need to study the rhythm is determined by the fact that it serves as a kind of aesthetic marker of fiction. The object of the study is the first novel by I. Goncharov – “An Ordinary Story”. The subject of research is the rhythm of artistic prose. The purpose of the article is to identify some of the rhythm-forming factors in the first novel of the writer. Rhythm is considered at different levels of the art text: the plot; the motive; the character system. The article traces the story line of love of Alexander Aduev. Rhythm can detect cyclical emotions, feelings, moods, feelings of love of Alexander. Furthermore, the rhythm of the motives of the novel can be supported by different situational moments. Rhythm allows authors to identify patterns in the article character system. The rhythm of artistic images of Alexander Aduev and Peter Aduev created through comparison or contrast between the characters; through conjugation or their repulsion from each other. This article identifies some of the techniques of rhythm-forming factors of fiction: the system of repetitions and oppositions; rhythmic symmetry and asymmetry. An important observation of the authors of the article is that the rhythm of the novel is uneven and can become either a clear and tight, or, on the contrary, implicitly and weakened. The authors come to the main conclusion that rhythm is not only a major forming factor, but also an important indicator of aesthetically perfect prose, as the result of conscious and meaningful work of a writer on it. Thanks to the rhythm, a novel takes on expressiveness, lightness, plot-compositional order and narrative identity of an author.
LEXICAL INNOVATONS IN SCIENTIFIC PAPERS OF I. G. IVANOV
UDC: УДК 821.511.151,81’367.625
Authors: Lyudmila Ivanovna Bartseva ; Lydia Sidorovna Matrosova ; Nina Anatoljevna Muzurova ;
The article is devoted to scientific analysis of the lexical innovations created by professor I. G. Ivanov. The study analyzed five of his works: three books, one monograph and three articles. 506 neologisms were taken from these sources. The purpose of work is to analyze the methods of formation of neologisms and to answer the questions of enrichment of the lexical structure of the Mari language at the expense of neologisms. The study notes that suffixation is a productive way of word formation in the Mari language. However, scientists have used other ways in his works, for example: lexical and syntactic (net addition, fusion, merging), morphological and syntactic, method of complex suffixes, lexical-semantic, the use of dialect words, the use of combination of words, joint with connecting tone, the use of “common words” of 20–30 years of XX century (according to I. G. Ivanov) – 29 lexemes: йырюж ‘atmosphere’, тистер ‘alphabet’, тиште ‘sign’, тодыш ‘conjugation’, etc. Despite the positive trends in development of the lexical structure of the Mari language, the national language is not enough used in conditions of rapid development of society in such important areas of life such as education, management, business communication, and so on. Mari people shortage of its own lexical resources for the full functioning of the language. Therefore, conscious inter-vention in the process of derivation of the native language, according to professor I. G. Ivanov, could be one of the ways out of this situation. Of course, not all the lexical units created by I. G. Ivanov, can be regarded as successful, such as шижык ‘feeling’, руштык ‘alcohol’, колык ‘hearing’ (Ivanov), йолташчык ‘foe’ and so on. Such words sound artificial in the language, and native speakers, of course, will not accept them. Despite all these shortcomings, the idea of the tireless linguist in the completion of the lexical composition of the Mari language due to neologisms was correct and indispensable.
AESTHETIC RANGE OF THE GENRE OF FAIRY TALE (FOLKLORE PLOTS AND FORMS OF THEIR INTERPRETATION IN YOUNG AUTHORS’ PROSE)
UDC: УДК 82-343.4
Authors: Natalia Igorevna Efimova ; Ekaterina Andreevna Plotnikova ;
The article focuses on how genres of fairy tale are interpreted by representatives of youth communities and subcultures (Tolkien’s fans, Potter’s fans, gamers) and by beginning authors – prizewinners of the Debut award in the Short Prose nomination (2009–2014). In youth culture the genre of folk fairy tale is used as one of the ways to create a new genre, a unique narrative pattern (“fairy tales” by Tolkien’s fans and potterheads, “fairy tales other way round” by Evgeny Babushkin, etc.). In works by amateur writers folklore archetypes can either maintain their traditional character or be transformed. Notable among them are the so-called “transformations” (a traditional pattern is transformed until it becomes the opposite in meaning). Studying such transformations lets the researcher understand how this or that community interprets codes of fairy tales and if the community tends to reconstruct or destroy the traditional pattern. In fairy tale narrations by the beginning authors Alice Ganieva and Evgeny Babushkin one comes across both traditional elements (plots, motives, separate structural models and constituents of characters of folk fairy tales) and novel elements (connection of titles and subtitles, idea of a child’s perception of two worlds as a natural way of accepting things in childhood, artistic device of isolation, etc.). An efficient way to create the youth literary fairy tale is to immerse its characters into the modern reality – that is where specific relations between popular culture and literature and folklore emerge. In this case mass culture is regarded as “a modern analogue of folklore, urban epos and myth”.
METAPHORS FROM THE SPHERE-SOURCE “MUSIC” IN THE NOVEL “BLACKBERRY WINE” BY JOANNE HARRIS
UDC: УДК 81’373.612.2:82–31
Authors: Ol'ga Sergeevna Kamysheva ;
The article is devoted to the investigation of musical metaphors in the novel “Blackberry Wine” by J. Harris. The musical metaphors are described from the point of view of Cognitive Linguistics, the theory of metaphorical modeling, the theory of conceptual metaphor and discourse analysis. The methods of research allow distinguishing the main concepts in the mental space of the author. In this article the theory of metaphorical modeling and the theory of conceptual metaphor are applied to the analysis of musical metaphors that take place in the novel “Blackberry Wine” by J. Harris. Musical metaphors in this novel are small in number (only 15 musical metaphors were found and analyzed). However, according to the theory of metaphorical modeling these metaphors are divided into frames and slots, which probably indicate to a variety of such metaphors in the novel. Metaphors were classified according to the main frames: “The Sound of Music”, “Artist”, “Musical Instruments” and “Playing Musical Instruments”. In this case the most frequent are the metaphor of music and artist. In the novel “Blackberry Wine” by J. Harris musical metaphors help to characterize people, nature and things. It should be noted that such metaphors do not show a significant difference in their numbers. We assume this is due to the fact that the main characters of the novel are in close interaction with nature and things. In terms of structure, trite and original metaphors were found in the studied novel. At the same time there is the dominance of original metaphors. Perhaps it points out to the creativity and erudition of the writer.
TYPES OF ASSIMILATION OF VOWELS AND CONSONANTS IN THE SPEECH FLOW OF THE MEADOW AND URAL MARI
UDC: УДК 809.452.1-4
Authors: Anatolij Nikolaevich Kuklin ;
Dialect Meadow Mari language system covers the Morki-Sernur, the Volga, and the Yoshkar-Ola patois. The Meadow dialect, according to L. P. Gruzov, joins the Sardayal-Arbor dialect, which has a number of features in common with the Eastern dialect. I. G. Ivanov, adhering to the preliminary findings of the dialectical expedition of N. T. Pengitov, includes the Urzhum dialect prevalent in Urzhumsky District of the Kirov region and in a part of Marie-Tureksky district of the Republic of Mari El, in the dialect of the Meadow Mari. The Ural Mari language consists of two dialects: Krasnoufimsk and Kungur. Assimilation of vowels and consonants in the speech stream of Meadow and Ural Mari is the main regularity of the Mari language phonetic system. Vowel harmony in the Eastern Mari dialect is based on the characteristics of row and labiality. In this connection, the two species of vowel harmony can be distinguished: palatal-velar and labial. According to the law palatal-velar harmony, vowels from one row can act in a word. Nevertheless, cases are not subject to this rule are found in almost every dialect. So, in the Meadow dialects particular indifference to the previous ones show speech sounds from the middle row: [a], [ы] and sounds from the first row [и], [э] (in the Krasnoufimsk dialect). Labial harmony is closely associated with palatal-velar. The final vowel of a word (word forms) is assimilated to the stressed vowel, not only in labiality, but as belonging to a particular row. Assimilation of adjacent sound segments or closely facing consonants is one of the phonetic phenomena of consonantism. Depending on the structure and characteristics of the phonetic system of the Mari dialects it is manifested in different ways: by voicing and voicelessness, according to its location and the place of articulation. It can be partial or complete, appear in reverse or forward.
NATIONAL REGIONAL LITERATURE AS ARTISTIC AND AESTHETIC COMMONNESS (FROM THE EXPERIENCE OF THE EARLY XXth СENTURY)
UDC: УДК 82'282
Authors: Albina F Myshkina ;
The article analyzes the origin and the development of national literature of the Volga and Cis-Urals people in the first third of the XXth century. Particular attention is paid to the concepts of “national style”, “national outlook”, “Genesis”, “genres of literature”, “drama and theater”. The research revealed general and specific features of national literature. The study of the origins of the literature is the most important in terms of the formation of their typology. In this line the most productive methods are comparing and contrasting of literary events and facts, comparative analysis of literary texts. The study formed the typological groups of national literature, which are based on religious component (Christianity – the Chuvash people, the Udmurts, the Mordvins, the Mari people, Islam – the Tatars and the Bashkirs) or language component (Turkic – the Chuvash people, the Tatars, the Bashkirs, and Finno-Ugric – the Mordvins, the Mari people, the Udmurts and the Komi people). Moreover, in your opinion, there are other factors that are not in the least affect the characteristics of the national artistic and aesthetic thinking. Among them are the traditional forms of farming (agriculture – the Chuvash people, the Mari people; cattle-farming – the Tatars, the Bashkirs, fishing and hunting – the Udmurts, reindeer – the Komi people), social structure and social life style (patriarchal and generic-tribal relations).
THE IMAGE PARADIGM ‘SOMETHING STATIC AND WHOLE AND REPRESENTING A CONTAINER’ → ‘QUANTITY’
UDC: УДК 81
Authors: Julija L'vovna Nigmatzjanova ; Natal'ja Vasil'evna Merkushina ;
The study examined the Russian and English nouns fulfilling the function of the metaphorical nomination of inexact quantity and having currently the status of usual semantic derivatives. Material analysis was conducted based on the methodology to identify image paradigms of abstracts. The analysis revealed two image paradigms of abstracts: 1) ‘something static whole → ‘quantity’; 2) ‘something dynamic / static whole’ → ‘quantity’. The paradigm of abstracts ‘something static whole → ‘quantity’ is used as a means of semantic derivation for metaphorical nomination of large quantity as well as small quantity. The analysis has shown that the paradigm ‘something static whole → ‘quantity’ has the following four subparadigms: 1) ‘something static and whole representing a set’ → ‘quantity’; 2) ‘something static and whole representing a container’ → ‘quantity’; c) ‘something static and whole that has a big / small size’ → ‘quantity’; 4) ‘something static and whole which is a part of some other wholeness’ → ‘quantity’. This article discusses the Russian and English nouns realizing the image paradigm ‘something static and whole representing a container’ → ‘quantity’. Within this paradigm the images that are analogous or specific to the Russian and English languages are identified.
ASSESSMENT IN THE PHRASEOLOGY OF THE FRENCH LANGUAGE
UDC: УДК 811.511.141
Authors: Tat'jana Al'bertovna Soldatkina ;
This article is devoted to the semantics of assessment in the idioms of the French language. Learning a language it is important to know its grammatical and lexical composition. Praseology is a key to “understand” the language. Idioms reflect people’s experience, portray the linguistic world-image of a certain nationality. The purpose of the article under the study is to analyze the idioms selected by the method of continuous sampling with the aim of identifying the dominant form of metaphors, which often expresses a kind of assessment. The theoretical background covers the works of the following scientists: V. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Smirnitsky, A. I. Chernysheva, A. P. Chudinov. The following methods were used while working on this article: the method of continuous sampling; the method of linguistic description; the comparative method. Material for the study was introduced by 150 idioms of the French language selected by the method of continuous sampling from the phraseological dictionaries of the French language. The theoretical significance is to determine the peculiarities of phraseological units by means of definite kinds metaphors and their models.
FUNCTIONAL FEATURES OF FABRICATIVE STRUCTURES IN THE RUSSIAN AND POLISH LANGUAGES
UDC: УДК 801.561.1
Authors: Ljudmila Ivanovna Timofeeva ;
The article compares Russian and Polish substantive phrases with fabricative semantics of a type “mask of wood” – “maska z drewna”, “brick wall” – “mur ceglany”, extracted from art texts. At the system level they are represented by two types of formal structures: Noun. + of + Noun (In the Polish - S + z/ze + S) and Appendix + Noun. Confrontational analysis of these phrases was conducted on the basis of the functional method, which is found to be very effective when compared syntactic structures in related languages. The study established the similarities and differences between the compared languages in the functioning of similar entities. Particular attention is given to the isofunctionalism of fabricative phrases formed on different models and perform an identical function in terms of stylistic adequacy of the contexts. The reason of this phenomenon is marked by the ability of the dependent components of fabricative phrases to variability (interchangeability): dress of calico/cotton dress, mur z cegły/ceglany. Speaking about variant relationship, different structure combinations become members of functional variation distribution, existence of which is explained by the specific conditions of speech. Variation of dependent components of studied phrases is widely represented at the interlingual level, because the selection of a variation distribution member on the languages may be different. Thus, for the Russian texts the constructions of a type: Appendix + Nouns, and for Polish - (S + z/ze + S) are most characteristic. The article noted cases of complete system equivalence and non-categorical equivalence of structures within the material being studied. Particular attention is paid to examples of non-categorical equivalence, in which the fabricative phrases of one language are correlated with the linguistic units of another.
NEW HISTORY OF THE CHUVASH LITERATURE OF THE XXTH CENTURY
Authors: R. A. Kudrjavceva;
Рец.: История чувашской литературы ХХ в. Часть 1 (1900–1955 годы): коллективная монография / Чуваш. гос. ин-т гуманит. наук; отв. ред. В. Г. Родионов. Чебоксары: Чуваш. кн. изд-во, 2015. 431 с.