VESTNIK 1(29) 2018

VESTNIK 1(29) 2018
Date publication on the site:
2018-03-27 15:37:13
Full journal in PDF:
UDC: 378.14.015.62
Authors: Natalia S. Avdonina;
The article is about profession representation in the issue of professional identity. The goal of the article is to understand and form the structure of journalism students’ profession representation. In the beginning of the research, two hypotheses were formulated: 1) finding which university year students have had the first educational and professional crisis of professional identity in; 2) students consider journalism as creative profession mostly and as a possibility to realize themselves as creative people. The author developed the questionnaire of 34 questions called “Profession representation”. While researching two hypotheses were approved. Third- and four-year students are mostly not sure whether they are going to work as journalists. They have their first. educational and professional crisis of professional identity. Students consider journalism as a creative profession The first educational and professional crisis of professional identity is based on the necessity to work in news journalism, where the whole work is based on strict algorithms. The analysis of the research results let us make clear the structure of profession representation and get important data to improve training programs and syllabi.
UDC: 371.13,37.048.45
Authors: Natal'ya G. Arzamaszeva; Elena V. Kondratenko;
Problems of an ethnic nature: the prevention of an ethnic conflict, revival of a national culture, respect for traditions, history and culture of peoples inhabiting Russia are topical for Russia as a multinational state. The aim of our study is to develop and test models of formation an ethnocultural competence of students by means of museum pedagogics. The main research methods are: theoretical analysis of the literature on the research problem, analysis of the results of the questioning of students at the Mari State University. The ethno-cultural competence is defined as the combination of necessary personal qualities of a teacher, including professionalism, knowledge, and skills that allow him to freely use the tools of cultural and ethnic items. The formation of ethno-cultural competence of future teachers is possible in the framework of the university as an open socio-educational institution, which implements a system of measures in three interrelated main areas – educational, supervisory and practical. In order to find the effective means of formation of ethno-cultural competence of future teachers, the article deals with museum education. A modern museum is not just a place to store curiosities and relics, but also an effective base for communication and education, cultural and educational environment and a place of formation ethno-cultural competence of an individual. The most important principles of modern museum pedagogy are principles of interactivity, complexity, dialogue, characterization. The implementation of these principles allows to form such components of ethno-cultural competence as the understanding of the historical diversity of cultures and civilizations, the knowledge of the place of national culture in the global historical-cultural process; the role of ethnic and national factors in the evolution of culture and civilization, the specifics of a multi-ethnic environment; the intelligent use of the accumulated experience for development of creative abilities of personality and self-development, etc.
UDC: 377.3(470.343)"1940/1960"
Authors: Elena B. Beresneva;
At present, professional educational organizations are the main source of training educated, intellectually and professionally developed, competitive workforce in demand on the labor market. In order to increase the efficiency of this process, it is necessary to carry out an analysis, a scientific comprehension and generalization of the historical experience of vocational education of the Mari ASSR in 1940-1960. The necessity of scientific reflection on the theory and practice of professional technical education of the Mari ASSR in this period of time determines the study of historical and socio-economic prerequisites, theoretical and methodological issues – the general concept of the development of vocational education in its dialectical connections with the socioeconomic and political development of society in general, with the development of general education, scientific and technological progress. The evacuation of industrial enterprises to the east during the Great Patriotic War, in particular, to the republic, served as the basis for the development of new branches of industrial production. The influx of young people into the production necessitated the urgent preparation of skilled workers who were able to deploy the evacuated enterprises in the shortest possible time. Individual tutoring, courses, vocational and factory schools were actively used in their training. Thus, the centralized planned system of providing the industry with working staff, created on the eve of the war, had fully justified itself and had proved its viability in extreme conditions. Historical and socio-economic features of the development of the republic were an important factor in the formation and development of vocational education, as well as an incentive for changing it. Qualitative changes in production entailed corresponding changes in the content and methods of training. Scientific and technological progress created new branches of production, deepening its specialization. This, in turn, conditioned the emergence and development of new professions and, at the same time, led to the removal of professions associated with the disappearing types of production. The postwar reconstruction of the national economy required skilled workers and involved broader classes of young people in vocational education. One of the priorities in the post-war period was the need to involve young people in production, the transfer of appropriate skills. Consequently, the historical and pedagogical analysis of the formation and development of the vocational education of the Mari ASSR in the 1940s–1960s makes it possible to determine the specific features of vocational education as an integral, dynamically complex system in which pedagogical, economic, social and production processes are carried out, as well as to reflect their interrelationship and interdependence.
UDC: 37 1174
Authors: Oksana N. Vasenina;
The article deals with the formation of communicative skills and knowledge in the lessons of the Mari (state) language in schools with the Russian (native) language. The main goal of teaching the Mari language as a nonnative language at schools is to develop the ability to communicate in Mari. The realization of this goal is connected with the formation of a number of communication skills: to understand the utterances in Mari in various situations of communication, to enter into communication in accordance with the peculiarities and rules of communication of the studied language. Means of communication at the lessons of the Mari language are texts and speech situations. The formation of communicative skills and knowledge in Mari is an extremely topical problem, since the degree of the formation of these skills affects not only the effectiveness of teaching children, but also the process of their socialization and the development of the personality as a whole. But this requires a constant diagnosis of motivation to learn the language and the formation of communicative skills and habits. The purposes of the research are the following: to find the motivation to study the Mari language and to reveal the formation of communicative skills and knowledge of students of the main school. Methods of research are the following: theoretical (analysis of psychological and educational literature on the research topic) and empirical (questionnaire to identify the level of motivation to study the language and the formation of communicative skills and knowledge of students). The content of the research is aimed at revealing the students’ opinion on the importance and necessity of studying Mari as one of the state languages in the Republic of Mari El; the ability of students to independently organize their work at the lesson and at home and to identify the difficulties encountered by students in studying the Mari language. The results of the study allow us to draw the following conclusions: interest in learning the language depends on the level of motivation, in this connection it becomes urgent to find ways and forms of joint activity of students and teachers of the Mari language as a non-native to achieve a high level of motivation and educational results.
UDC: 373
Authors: Maria N. Gavrilova; Irina S. Zimina; Vladislav A. Koshkin;
Introduction. With the increase in the production of cars, the increase in the traffic intensity on the roads the responsibility of all road users increases drivers, pedestrians, and passengers. Ensuring traffic safety is an important public task. Particular importance in solving this problem is the advance and proper preparation of the youngest pedestrians – children. Purpose. The purpose of the work is to consider the use of the “decision tree” method when studying the topic “Safety on the roads” within the framework of the school course “Fundamentals of life safety”. Materials and methods. The decision tree is a method that allows you to master the skills of choosing the optimal solution in extreme situations and to assess the degree of risk of the decision taken. The trunk of a tree is determined by the main question of the topic of the lesson, as a trunk can be a simulated or real situation, which can be solved in several ways. The branches of the tree are assumptions that begin with the words: “Perhaps...”, “Probably...”. The number of branches is unlimited. The leaves of the tree are justification, the arguments that prove the correctness of the suggested assumption (indicated on the branch). This experiment was conducted among schoolchildren of the 8th grade (14–15 years-old). We determined the type of behavior of schoolchildren in the event of an unexpected danger (E. U. Utkin). Then we calculated the reaction time according to the test of Joseph Blok. 100 students took part in the experiment. Results, discussion. At the control stage of the study there is a positive dynamics: the number of adolescents with a rational type of behavior has increased, and positive changes have been noticed in the rate of response of pupils. It was found that in the experimental group there was a significant change in the reaction time in schoolchildren. The number of children with a high reaction rate increased from 20 % to 50 %. Conclusion. Thus, the “decision tree” method can be widely used in the course of the “Fundamentals of life safety” course, it allows to systematize the knowledge of schoolchildren and to analyze possible extreme situations, to assess solution ways and means, and to assess in a calm atmosphere the degree of safety of the chosen solution.
UDC: 348
Authors: Anastasia V. Kuznetsova; Aleksey V. Kuznetsov;
Introduction. The article is devoted to solving the problems of forming independent work skills among students of pedagogical directions within the discipline “General physical practical work” on the example of laboratory work in molecular physics. The aim of our work is to create a methodology that will help to increase the proportion of independent student work while making study research. This will help to form research skills. Materials and Methods. Based on the teachings of A. M. Novikov on the methodology of scientific research, we have developed a structure of laboratory works, which includes phases (design phase, technological phase, reflexive phase) and the stages of preparation, execution and delivery of work in molecular physics. Results of the research. The workbook was elaborated, including laboratory works that correspond to this structure, allows reflecting the components of the scientific method of research when performing a physical experiment. We successfully use this workbook at carrying out of laboratory practical work at studying the course “Molecular physics”.The article gives an example of one of the laboratory works from a workbook describing the performance of the work. Conclusion. The proportion of independent work increases, students set the purpose and tasks of the laboratory experiment as physical research, formulate a hypothesis, plan the sequence of work performance and analysis of its results. These tasks give the intention to students to prepare their tasks carefully. This, in turn, should lead to mastering the methods of scientific knowledge of physical phenomena, the acquisition of skills and knowledge of their practical use.
UDC: 378-057.4
Authors: Sergej Ju. Lavrent'ev; Dmitrii A. Krylov;
The article, taking into account the Russian and global trends in the development of society, explores the urgent problem of overcoming the negative consequences of global crises in the economy, politics, culture and education. Growing competition makes special demands on the quality of higher education in these areas. In this regard, representatives of state structures and business community see in a modern university graduate a socially mature personality raising its professional skills, as well as a competent and competitive employee with special knowledge and skills in the field of innovative technologies, with creative thinking and professional mobility. The purpose of the study is to identify the reasons for the low level of the university students’ professional and personal competitiveness formation and the empirical justification for effective ways to improve the quality of education. In this case, competitiveness is determined by the ability to actively mobilize personal qualities and the willingness to build a strategy of professional activity in accordance with the systemic targets of the university's educational process. The research methods were the theoretical and pedagogical analysis of the current state of the competitiveness forming process; included and unincorporated surveillance; content analysis of students’ creative works; diagnostic methods, including generalization of independent characteristics, data of mutual and self-evaluation. Several reasons for the insufficiently high level of student professional and personal development are revealed: individual psychological; organizational; training; material and technical; social; material and household, etc. The definition of professional competitiveness is formulated – readiness for competently built labor activity, targeted achievement of planned results on the basis of effective realization of creative, intellectual and personal potential. The conclusions are drawn about the need to search for new approaches to design, theoretical and empirical verification of goals and objectives, as well as the need to comprehend the totality of internal and external factors of the formation of professional and personal student competitiveness in the educational process of a modern university.
UDC: 37.013.43:39
Authors: Elena V. Maltseva; Olga A. Makarova; Svetlana A. Mukhina;
The article is devoted to the problem of developing schoolchildren’s ecological competence on the basis of ethnocultural education. Nowadays ethno-cultural education is needed to overcome the youth’s consuming attitude towards nature, to develop moral and bioethical features. The article considers various approaches to the notion of «ecological competence», the technology of its developing. The use of some elements of ethnic culture, which is the reflection of historical events, epic stories, rituals, and the people’s mythology, is significant both in the process of environmental education and in the process of the child’s upbringing. Humane attitude towards nature is manifested, first of all, in the child's activity, in the development of his capability of designing and organizing ecologically friendly activity in the environment. The article reveals the theoretical foundations of ethnocultural education, the concept of “ethno-cultural awareness”. The author shows the importance of developing children’s understanding and acceptance of the ethnic world, the significance of acquiring the people’s cultural heritage. Having a high educational potential the artifacts of traditional culture teach people how to live not only in harmony with each other but in harmony with nature. The research is aimed at theoretical and experimental study of the role of ethno-cultural education in the development of schoolchildren’s ecological competence in the Republic of Mari El. The research, based on specially selected and developed techniques, has shown that the majority of schoolchildren have a low level of environmental competence and ethno-cultural awareness. The article presents the ways of developing ecological competence on the basis of the indigenous people’s ethno-cultural heritage in the Republic of Mari El. Due to their psycho-physiological characteristics, children are especially susceptible to folklore that is filled with entertaining, fabulous, playful and creative activities. Fairy tales, proverbs, riddles included into the educational process help to develop schoolchildren’s knowledge about the culture of the people, about the national heroes; they help to develop schoolchildren’s love for the native land. Modern educational technologies, electronic educational resources provide a unique opportunity to introduce the natural and cultural values of their native land to schoolchildren.
UDC: 378.14.06:811.111
Authors: Elina I. Murtazina; Ilhamiya I. Galimzyanova;
The theme of the article is important because of the necessity of developing tolerance, an important personality trait contributing to the social skills of the future graduate. The aim of our research was to use the English language training aid for developing students’ tolerance, defining the level of the criteria of tolerance three components using the empirical method testing and describing the results of this training aid experimental approbation in the educational process of the Kazan national research technological university. The training aid tasks are aimed at increasing the level of linguistic and linguocultural knowledge, empathy and reflection, communicative skills and reducing aggressiveness. The exercises contribute to developing all kinds of speech skills – reading, listening, writing and speaking, they are supposed to be fulfilled with the use of both traditional explanatory-illustration, reproductive methods and active methods of teaching with the use of Internet and audio resources, in the form of individual, pair and group work of students. The authentic material with culturological topics represented in the first and in the second chapter and the selected exercises satisfy the principles of the communicative character of teaching, bringing up reflection and the dialogue of cultures, creative and activity way of getting knowledge and also person-oriented teaching.
UDC: 378.14.06:811.111
Authors: Elina I. Murtazina;
The importance of the article deals with the necessity of developing such important general competence of the graduate as intercultural one which implies developing tolerance. The development of tolerance in the educational process of the university is made with the use of both traditional explanatory-illustrative technology and innovational technology of critical thinking which helps to develop students’ individual, reasoned, creative thinking. The aim of our research was to use the technology of critical thinking at the English practice classes at the Kazan national research technological university for increasing the level of tolerance three components, to make observations of the students’ behavior for estimating the level of these components, and also to summarize the results of this technology approbation. The critical thinking technology consisting of three stages, “challenge”, “understanding” and “reflection” was used in the form of the following technics – “cluster”, “concept wheel”, the table of easy and difficult questions, brainstorming, “insert”, filling in the concept-based table, creative writing in the form of five-line stanza and essay. The implementation of this technology added to increasing the tolerance level of students: having revealed the level of tolerance three components with the help of the empirical method observation we detected the prominent dynamics of tolerance.
UDC: 372.881.1
Authors: Oleg V. Nefyodov; Irina P Ivanovskaya;
This article concentrates on the problem of creating a unified two-level multimedia textbook of English for nonlinguistic students at the initial stage of learning. Currently used foreign language textbooks become soon morally obsolete and do not provide rational techniques, methods and strategies of teaching and learning. In this regard, the purpose of our study was to choose the most optimal software tools for creating multimedia training complexes and to determine their most significant features and advantages. We considered the requirements for foreign languages textbooks, the requirements of computer linguodidactics for the content of multimedia textbooks, and a number of programs for compiling multimedia applications. Both the traditional printed and multimedia textbook must display all the components of the teaching content: language and speech material; area of practical use; communicative situations; exercises; tasks for self-control and socio-cultural information. From a number of the computer programs tested by us it is necessary to emphasize iSpring Suite, as optimal for teachers without programming skills. The results of our theoretical and experimental studies allow us to conclude that a foreign language multimedia textbook for the initial stage students of non-linguistic directions should be cross-platform and include a basic part covering the content of the compulsory curriculum and optional part containing an additional bank of assignments and references to Internet resources. Modern foreign language textbook should be self-sufficient and allow students to use educational material without teacher's support, and the main criterion for selecting the content of the textbook should be the focus on the development of foreign language communicative competence.
UDC: 378
Authors: Nadezhda I. Rossenko;
Introduction. The article is devoted to the theoretical and methodological foundations of the pedagogical system for the formation of economic and legal culture among university students. The purpose of the article is theoretical substantiation of a set of methodological approaches, which is the most acceptable for the system of formation of economic and legal culture among university students. Materials and methods. Within the framework of the study, a set of theoretical and methodological approaches was identified and justified, including the following: systemic, activity and culturological approaches. A mutually stimulating and interacting relationship between the indicated approaches has been established. On the basis of the methodological analysis of the research, a special scientific methodology is defined that includes the basic levels: general scientific basis, theoretical and methodological strategy, practice-oriented tactic. The results of the research. The presented set of theoretical and methodological approaches provides sufficient conditions for the correctness and formulation of the research problem, the formulation, of a practical apparatus for its solution – the creation of a system of effective activity of subjects in the formation of economic and legal culture among university students. Discussion and conclusions. A detailed descriptive analysis of each theoretical and methodological approach in isolation and, in general, the determination of their internal complementarity and mutual influence, made it possible to ascertain the optimality of the presented theoretical and methodological complex within the system of formation of economic and legal culture among university students.
UDC: 378.1
Authors: Vera I. Toktarova;
The introduction of Federal State Standards of Higher Education presupposes the qualitative change in the organization of training through the widespread use of e-learning systems. The relevance of the problem studied in this paper is caused by the need to implement and improve the effective management of e-learning. The purpose of the study is the theoretical justification and practical implementation of the mechanism for managing e-learning in the electronic educational environment (EEE) of the higher education institution (HEI). Theoretical and empirical research methods were used in the study. The paper gives the definition of the learning process management and considers the development of the theory of automated management of learning in a historical retrospective. The learner model in EEE is described; the characteristics of its component parameters are given. The structure of interaction of subjects of training in EEE in the form of the didactic system with a certain set of interacting components and management functions is presented: manager is a teacher or module ща management in EEE, the managed subject is a student. The task of managing the learning process is formulated taking into account the target setting, which consists in improving the educational process, increasing the effectiveness of mastering knowledge, forming competences, developing the thinking abilities of the students. The stages of construction the process of managing the educational and cognitive activity of students in EEE are suggested as follows: the study of the management object, the design and development of the management program, the implementation of the developed program, the correction of learning process and management programs. The scheme of e-learning process management is described, which is implemented in the program module of management and construction of learning scenarios in the EEE. Due to the relevance of the issues discussed in the work, it may be interesting and useful to teachers and tutors of higher educational institutions both in theoretical and practical aspects.
UDC: 658.5
Authors: Lyudmila G. Filippova;
The author of the article sets a specific goal: to find the opportunities for the commercialization of educational and teaching-methodological base of the teacher, having studied the nature and the content of small innovative enterprises (SIE), both in the economy and in the conditions of the university. The author refers to the origins of the small innovative enterprises, especially considering their performance in the various stages of operation. Particular attention is paid to the establishment of SIE-s at the universities of the country, as well as to the main directions of their activities. The article draws attention to a rather complicated procedure and the rules of creation of small innovative enterprises in high school. A more detailed study of the materials of SIE-s functioning at the Volga State University of Technology allows the author to identify several problems that somehow prevent the wide dissemination of small innovative enterprises in the sphere of education. The scientific novelty of the article is an attempt to identify the forms and methods of the scientific community of experienced teachers and young researchers in the commercialization of education and educational base of the department. The main methods of the research are the following: the study of literature on the issue, Internet resources analysis for the functioning of SIE-s at universities, interviews with representatives of the scientific and methodological university centers of the Republic, and with the instructors – the authors of patents. The practical importance of the work, in our opinion, is that university instructors will have a more objective view of SIE-s and their participation in the process of their creation at this stage can be realized through the development of a project for obtaining a grant.
UDC: 372
Authors: Natalya A. Yukina; Irina V. Vostrikova;
The purpose of this article is to identify the interrelationship and the interdependence of project activities and to develop an informative activity and the independence of students through the following tasks: surveys of students and teachers colleges of the Republic involved in project activities, comparison and summarizing of results; testing of students of secondary professional education with the use of the tests by Andreev V. I.; study the projects of students of the State budget professional educational institution of the Republic of Mari El “Agro-building college” to determine the technology of organization of project activities; development of methodical recommendations for development of informative activity and independence of students in project activities. The study was conducted using the tests by V. I. Andreev “Assessment of the level of creative potential of personality” and “Assessment of the ability to self-development and self-education”. All the methods were tested by the author on the basis of Kazan state university in the class-lyceum at the school – Youth Housing Complex No. 146 in Kazan. Reliability, validity and objectivity of tests were assessed [2]. Test selection is not random. The highest-level features of cognitive activity is considered level of creativity, self-development and self-education of students is associated with the development of cognitive independence in learning. One of the incentives of independent cognitive activity is a special organization of the educational process, the core of which is currently the project activities. In the course of the study, the authors analyze test data, students involved in projects, and students who do not develop projects. A small sample of the experimental group is explained by the features of the composition of the design groups: from one to a microgroup (3–7 people). Comparative indicators are shown in the form of diagrams. Research methods are: theoretical (studying and generalization of psycho-pedagogical and scientific-theoretical literature on project training and cognitive activity and independence); empirical (questioning, testing, analysis of students' projects). Novelty of the research: the level of the creative potential of the individual and the ability for self-development and self-education of students is determined, reflecting the realization of cognitive activity and independence in the project activity. The hypothesis of the study is confirmed: the regular involvement of students in the project activities and compliance with the technology of its organization will contribute to the development of cognitive independence and activity of technical college students.
UDC: 378:59.9
Authors: Inna B. Avakyan;
The article contains the results of scientific research on the topical problem of the development of innovative readiness in the conditions of the socio-psychological climate of pedagogical collectives of higher educational institutions. The main goal of the research is to reveal the features of the development of the innovational readiness of the teacher and the socio-psychological climate of pedagogical collectives of higher educational institutions. In the process of research, a set of methods that enrich and supplement each other was used, including mathematical and statistical methods for processing the data. The psychodiagnostic toolkit included 15 methods, including the author's one. Respondents were representatives of the teaching staff of nine higher educational institutions of Russia. The conducted research made it possible to identify the presence of a favorable socio-psychological climate in all the teaching staffs of the universities that were represented. This makes it possible to develop in the conditions of active interaction in joint activities, the atmosphere of creative search, the readiness to adopt, introduce innovations in the educational process of the university, as well as the different level of innovative readiness of pedagogical collectives. The study of emotional, motivational, cognitive, personal (instrumental), organizational components of the readiness of pedagogical collectives for innovations made it possible to reveal the level of innovative readiness of these pedagogical collectives, which characterizes the psychological readiness of the teacher for innovative activity. In the situation of high uncertainty in the system of higher professional education, the problem of the teacher's psychological readiness in the context of optimizing the sociopsychological climate of pedagogical collectives of higher educational institutions acquires a special significance and urgency, since it is the main and necessary factor for the development of the innovative potential of modern educational institutions. The results of the research presented in this article testify to the need for further research and scientific developments in the field of educational psychology.
UDC: 159.922
Authors: Аleksandr А. Baranov; Roza K. Makhmutova; Tat'yana V. Shreiber;
Introduction. The article presents the results of the empirical research devoted to the study of the mother-child relationships factor influence on the formation of psychosomatic disorders in young children. The purpose of the research is to study the characteristics of the mother-child emotional interaction as a factor in the formation of psychosomatic disorders in young children. Materials and methods. The study was conducted using psychodiagnostic procedures, was a result of a medical history in the mothers of healthy children and children with psychosomatic disorders from the digestive tract, respiratory system and skin. The features of the emotional side of the mother-child interaction have been studied, the level of mental development of 1,5–3-year-old 1,5–3-year-old is determined. Results of the study, discussion. It was found that in children with psychosomatic disorders, the lead is less often diagnosed, and the delay in mental development is more common. It is empirically proven that in the characteristics of the emotional interaction of mothers raising children with various psychosomatic disorders, the level of unconditional acceptance, the ability to perceive the psycho-emotional state of the child, provide him emotional support and affect his emotional state is much lower, but the desire for bodily contact is higher, compared with mothers raising healthy children. The study provides a comparative description of the emotional interaction between mothers and young children with disorders of the digestive tract, respiratory system and skin diseases. Conclusion. The study made it possible to reveal significant differences in the features of the motherchild emotional interaction of mothers who raise healthy children and children with various psycho-somatic disorders. It has been confirmed that mothers’ low level of unconditional adoption of the child, the lack of desire for physical contact, the inability to provide emotional support and to affect the child's condition on the part of the mother, are a factor in the formation of psychosomatic disorders in young children.
UDC: 81ʼ373.237(=811.511.1)
Authors: Natalya M. Mosina; Nina V. Kazaeva;
This paper is concerned with the study of lexical units that denote names of persons by occupation in the Finnish and Hungarian languages in terms of its derivational structure and functional properties. The naming of persons by a certain occupation is a large in quantity and diverse in structure and semantic properties fragment of the language vocabulary, which is constantly broadened by new units. Words reflect the facts of reality; they interrelate and form a paradigm. Over the past years, the words, denoting the names of persons by occupation, cause a growing interest among domestic and foreign linguists and is the subject of many linguistic studies, covering different languages. The relevance of this study is determined by dynamic changes occurring in this layer of vocabulary as well as the lack of similar works in Finno-Ugric linguistics. The research material is represented by lexemes – names of persons by occupation, selected by continuous sampling from bilingual Finnish-Russian, Russian-Finnish, Hungarian-Russian, Russian-Hungarian dictionaries. The research draws on the following linguistic methods: continuous sampling, descriptive, comparative and contrastive methods. Analysing the research results the authors draw the conclusion that the names of persons by occupation in the above languages are represented, mainly, by complex two- and threecomponent lexical units; the terminational manner of derivation also played a significant role in the formation of lexemes, naming persons by occupation, but at the present stage the described suffixes are not productive and do not actively participate in the formation of new words of the thematic group. It should be noted that in the Hungarian language the important role in naming persons by occupation is played by nominalisation of adjectives and participles.
UDC: 811.511.15’342.8/9
Authors: Osip E. Polyakov;
The Volga languages (Moksha, Erzya and Mari), as well as other Finno-Ugric languages (Finnish, Estonian and other Baltic-Finnish, Saami, Hungarian, Khanty, Mansky, Udmurt, Komi) are the languages of the Ural family. The Finno-Ugric languages retained many Uralic language features, for example, the lack of prefixes, the presence of post-position constructions, the absence of the grammatical category of the gender, the presence of the grammatical category of possessiveness, but there were also various features, including the use of the stress. This article will provide the information on the use of the stress in various Finno-Ugric languages, but special attention is paid to its use in the Volga (Moksha, Erzya and Mari) languages. In this study, we have applied not only a descriptive method, but also a comparative one. Giving the characterization of accent in the Volga languages, the author starts from the position that the stress is verbal, syntagmatic and phrase. A special type of emphasis is considered logical, the essence of which is to emphasize in the sentence the most important word. Thus, the materials of our article indicate that the emphasis in the Finno-Ugric languages, in general, is not semantic. In some cases, in the Mari language, it plays a semantic role (шéрге “dear” – шергé “crest”). Independent syllabic stress in most Finno- Ugric languages is syllable, in Erzyan it is miscellaneous, in Moksha language the stress falls on the first syllable. However, under certain phonetic conditions, the stress shifts to another syllable, in the Mari and Udmurt languages it is found on the last or penultimate syllable, in the Permian Komi – the place of stress depends on the morphological composition of the word. It is known that the vowel under stress must be longer. Nevertheless, the experimental analysis carried out in the phonetic laboratory of the Leningrad University showed an interesting result: the duration of the stressed vowel in the word áва “woman” was 150 msec, and 190 in the unstressed vowel.
UDC: 821.512-3
Authors: Marina P. Savirova;
The article is devoted to the problem of studying adventure genres in national literature. The manifestation of elements of adventure in artistic practice, the typology of the plot and the typology of heroes are explored. The main purpose of this article is to reveal the role of intrigue in the poetics of an adventure. In this regard, the author of the article refers to the plot and compositional features of the work, and to certain features of the hero, and the nature of situations and circumstances. The poetics of adventure prose have been sufficiently studied in many national literatures. A definite contribution to the study of the Chuvash adventure prose was made by G. I. Fedorov, N. N. Osipov and by the author of this article. Nevertheless, many issues in this direction remain unresolved, especially in a comparative perspective. Today it is important to take into account the changed attitudes toward such artistic styles of Chuvash literature as fantasy, detective, adventure, which have become very fascinating for modern readers. They are stories, novels, stories and to a lesser extent novels in genre relation. They are united by the commonality of the life of heroes, conflict situations and circumstances, the ways of plotting. As scientific methods, a comparative and historical-typological analysis were used, which allowed to investigate more versatile and widely the peculiarities of the phenomenon of art intrigue of Chuvash adventure prose. Results of the study. The rich and diverse nature of the intrigue as an artistic device is considered in the article. The special attention is drawn to the specificity of the genre-forming factors of the Chuvash adventure literature, so the gap in understanding the national characteristics of adventure genres is filled. It should be noted that the variety of lines of the plot of adventure literature, narrative techniques, the phenomenon of artistic intrigue serve to deepen psychologism, as well as to increase readership interest. The rich experience accumulated by the literature makes the researchers carefully study the traditions of the Chuvash writers in the field of adventure creation.
UDC: 821.161.1.09“18”
Authors: Natalya N. Starygina;
The structure and semantics of the image of the coaching inn, one of the most important in the figurative system of the story “The Scarecrow” by N. S. Leskov, are studied in the article. The creation of an image is based on the symbolization of the locus as a fatal and, at the same time, saving place. An important role in the symbolization of the locus is given to the inner context of the story, that is, the history of relations between the janitor Selivan (the main character), the residents and the family of the author-narrator. The images of Selivan and the coaching inn are developing in parallel, which is due to the perception of people around him and his place of residence: the status of “robber” is replaced by the status of the hero-savior, and the “robber” house is a place of salvation. The basic structural elements of the image of the coaching inn are description and narrative fragment, including artistic details, images and motifs. To create a spatial image, the methods of contrast are topical (the coaching inn is an “empty” yard), the methods of duplication (people rescued by Selivan, reward him, offer to become a janitor at the coaching inn), comparison methods (various conditions for renting the coaching inn). The writer extends the space of the coaching inn by portraying “Selivan’s Forest” and describing the thunderstorm. The specific details are symbolized in the context of the narration (for example, the number “six”, the forest). In the motivic complex, concentrating around this image, archetypal, folklore, sacral and profane motifs are revealed. The image of the coaching inn is a form of existence of the gift motive: twice the hero-rescuer is rewarded with such a unique gift. The motif of salvation is a plot-forming in the story, while it becomes an intertext unit, causing the reader to associate with the precedent text – The Captain's Daughter by Alexander Pushkin. The motives for the path, choice, and home are correlated with the image of the coaching inn. Actual for the image of the first coaching inn (leased to Selivan by the saved merchant), the complex of demonic motifs is replaced by Christian motives of salvation, enlightenment, mercy, the gifts of Christ. The image of the inn is complex, semantically saturated, multifunctional. It contains important cultural and Christian meanings for the writer.
UDC: 27-235=114.2.3:81’25
Authors: Yulia M. Trofimova;
The article is aimed at developing the notions of reverbalization and deverbalization in their application to historical texts, which have not yet been analyzed with their help. The analysis is held on the basis of the translation of the Gothic Bible that has always been of great interest for specialists in the Gothic language mainly from the viewpoint of the translational technique of Wulfila to whom the very translation from Greek is ascribed and besides the invention of the Gothic alphabet. All the papers, tackling the problem failed to reveal the most important features of the Gothic text, i. e. changes in its contents evoked by the particular word-for-word translational technique of Wulfila and paid no attention to the fragments of his translation that show the modes of expressing the text information according to the ways inherent in the lingual specificity of Gothic. These facts seem to be successfully established with the help of the notions of reverbalization and deverbalization which may be also very promising as the foundation for improving methods of translation from the point of view of their evolution in time. This fact can testify the actuality of the article though based on the historical material but effective for contemporary trends in translational technique.
UDC: 821
Authors: Ruslan Z. Khayrullin;
The object of the research is the prose of the Bashkir writer Z. Biisheva in its genre variety. The subject is problemthematic and substantial filling of genre forms. The purpose of the research is to reveal the possibilities of various genre forms in reflection of an author's idea. The author uses the following methods and approaches: biographical, involving the interpretation of the work as a reflection of the author's biographical and personal characteristics, problem-thematic and comparative. The article traces the process of the writer's acquisition of creative maturity and the embodiment of her intention to create a large-scale work reflecting the main milestones of Russian history and the inseparability of the destinies of the inhabitants of a small aoul and large-scale historical events in the life of the whole country. The article notes the traditions of Russian literature (L. N. Tolstoy, M. Gorky) in the work of Z. Biysheva and the connection of her trilogy with other large-scale works that comprehend the complex and ambiguous processes taking place in the country, and primarily with the “And Quiet Flows the Don” by M. Sholokhov. An important place in the trilogy is the theme of the birth of a new intelligentsia. It is revealed on the example of the fate of one of the main characters of Emesh, whose image is largely autobiographical. That is why a biographical approach was used to deepen its comprehension. The research reveals the role and significance of Z. Biiysheva's appeal to folklore, which can be traced both in the trilogy novel and in the subsequent works of the writer (“Master and apprentice” hikayat). It is claimed that appealing to folklore expands borders of the literary work, allows carrying out interface of history and the present; it considerably enriches an art arsenal of the writer.