VESTNIK 2 (50) 2023

VESTNIK 2 (50) 2023
Date publication on the site:
2023-06-28 08:53:54
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Assessment of students’ learning outcomes in the disciple “Life Safety” using the online-platform of the university
UDC: 378.147
Authors: Vera I. Aksenova; Lyubov A. Rubezhanskaya;
Introduction. The article presents quantitative indicators of students’ learning outcomes in the process of mastering the discipline “Life Safety” with the usage of the Ural State Law University (USLU) online-platform. Competence approach is used in teaching students. It involves assessing the results using three levels: threshold, basic and advanced. The module-rating system (MRS) was used to assess knowledge and learning outcomes. Assessment was carried out within the framework of the current control (tasks in the practical training at the end of each topic of the module, tests at the end of the module), final assessment (credit). Spearman rank correlation coefficients are given, indicating the presence of a strong correlation of students’ outcomes ratings at different stages of mastering the discipline “Life Safety” (LS) using the USLU online-platform. The equations of paired regression, characterizing the relationship between the factor and the resultant signs, are given. Purpose: to assess Bachelor students’ learning outcomes according to results of current assessment, mid-term assessment, and final assessment rating within the framework of the MRS while studying the discipline LS using the online-platform. Materials and methods: review of scientific literature; analysis of the effectiveness of test and measurement tools adapted to the capabilities of the online-platform; graphical, correlation and regression analysis; analysis of the effectiveness of classroom and extracurricular forms of learning. Results, discussion. The connection of classroom education with the USLU online-platform allowed to increase the tightness of intermediate and final ratings in the formation of the competences stipulated by the programme. It is found that the students’ final rating is considerably influenced by the rating of current tests (r = 0.93), and strongly influenced by the rating of mid-term assessment (credit) (r = 0.74). Using information and educational environment in evaluating students’ learning outcomes has increased the frequency of monitoring students’ independent work. Conclusion: differentiated independent learning activities of students become a systemic factor in managing the quality of education in the discipline “Life Safety” within the framework of the information-technology model of education.
Students’ universal competencies: content and means of their development
UDC: 378-057.875
Authors: Natalya G. Arzamastseva; Valentina V. Konstantinova; Svetlana A. Arefyeva;
Introduction. The article deals with the problem of the development of university students’ universal competencies. Universal competencies are a set of individual personality characteristics that contribute to achieving success in the profession. The Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education has defined eight groups of universal competencies (FSES HE 3++): systemic and critical thinking, project development and implementation, teamwork and leadership, intercultural interaction, etc. The development of universal competencies of university students is implemented in the following areas: educational process, educational and practical activities, research work. It should be noted that teachers have serious difficulties in choosing methods for studying the level of formation of universal competencies, since their nature is activity, not knowledge. In modern didactics, the issue of assessing universal competencies remains debatable. We are of the opinion that an electronic portfolio should be used to assess the development of students’ universal competencies. The electronic portfolio of students is a collection of student achievements, works, documents submitted electronically on the website of an educational institution. Filling out an electronic portfolio by students allows solving the following tasks: to evaluate the effectiveness of student self-development, to develop the ability to objectively assess the formation of competencies; to develop motivation for scientific and educational achievements; to encourage student activity and independence; to develop the skills of reflexive and evaluative activity of students; improve the skills of planning their own activities. The achievements recorded in the electronic portfolio enable the teacher to consider the prospects of professional and personal development of students and assess the formation of their universal competencies. Indicators of the formation of competencies are: the development of creativity of the individual and his project thinking, his ability to analyze, readiness for communication between participants in the educational process; the development of design skills, communicative abilities, leadership qualities, the ability to interact with project participants; development of business communication skills, development of the ability to apply modern communication technologies using technical means of interaction, etc. The purpose of the study is to consider the features of the development of students’ universal competencies and identify typical difficulties in their assessment. Materials and methods: theoretical analysis of the literature on the research problem, questionnaires and their quantitative and qualitative processing.
Regulatory and legal aspect of education for students with limited health capacities and disabilities
UDC: 37.014-056.24
Authors: Anna B. Volkova; Svetlana N. Fedorova; Elena P. Kartashova;
Introduction. The growing number of children with limited health capacities and disabilities necessitates the creation of conditions in the educational environment that meet the special educational needs of such students. When implementing the conditions, teachers of educational institutions need to focus on the legislative acts established in relation to persons with limited health capacities and disabilities. The purpose of the article is to determine the main directions of work in relation to students and pupils with limited health capacities and disabilities; to determine the current level of knowledge about the regulatory and legal support for the organization of education of persons with limited health capacities and disabilities among practitioners and students. Materials and methods: analysis of documents (normative legal acts concerning the education of students with limited health capacities and disabilities), testing, quantitative and qualitative data analysis. Research results, discussions. The analysis of regulatory and legal acts demonstrates the designation of the following areas of work in relation to students and pupils with limited health capacities and disabilities: 1) early diagnosis and correction; 2) provision of conditions for education; 3) development of special and adapted training programs; 4) training of teachers for teaching children with disabilities. The results of the study showed a high level of knowledge of legislative acts among practitioners and an average level among students. Insufficient knowledge of regulatory legal acts adopted at the regional level was noted. Conclusion. The mentioned areas of work to ensure the special educational needs of students with limited health capacities and disabilities indicate the importance and significance of each adopted regulatory legal act. These documents regulate the educational process. Knowledge of regulatory legal acts is a necessary condition for the implementation of effective education for children with limited health capacities and disabilities.
Analysis of foreign practices of using digital tools in the training of future teachers
UDC: 371.13:004
Authors: Elmira Kh. Galyamova; Oleg B. Chervov;
Introduction. The development of information technologies contributes to the grandiose changes in modern reality and the education system at different levels associated with the emergence of unique multimedia technologies, the introduction of innovative means of creating virtual and augmented reality, digital transformation in general. Information technologies are an integral part of modern school education in many countries and, in particular, in Russia. The purpose of this article is to identify the relevance of the use of digital tools in the training of future teachers and to analyze foreign practices of their application. Materials and methods. The domestic and foreign experience in the development, implementation and practical use of a digital simulator of pedagogical activity during the educational process and advanced training of mathematics teachers is studied, the effectiveness of individual projects is evaluated, and prospects for the introduction of digital simulators in the educational process of pedagogical universities are shown. The paper specifies the concepts: “digital literacy”, “digital competence”. Special attention is paid to the presentation of the principles of the “two-way approach”. The digital simulator of pedagogical activity allows you to work out some methods and techniques of interaction with students during the lesson before the start of the practice itself, and the process of introspection of the actions of the “virtual teacher” in combination with the ability to repeat the simulator session allows you to avoid serious methodological errors during the real practice at school. The article, pointing to the prospects of using digital simulators as a means of training and advanced training of teachers, describes the advantages and limitations of its use. The conclusion is made about the universality of the digital simulator of pedagogical activity and its didactic nature in the process of preparing the future teacher for the lesson at the stages of forecasting, designing and controlling various situations and events in the virtual classroom.
Methodological approaches of consulting in education
UDC: 378.1
Authors: Sergei Yu. Lavrentiev; Dmitry A. Krylov;
Introduction. In the presented result of the study, the relevance is due to the fact that the effective implementation of the goals and objectives of national projects is possible subject to an increase in the flexibility of educational programs to the requirements of the labor market; improving the quality of education; formation of competitive qualities of students, adaptation of foreign students to a foreign language educational environment. The purpose of the work is to identify and analyze the potential of using expert, process, project and training consulting in an educational organization. Both theoretical and empirical methods served as materials and methods of research. A brief description, comparative analysis, generalization of each of the considered methods of counseling help to increase the academic mobility of young students, the competitiveness of students and teachers, and the expansion of areas of cooperation in the field of education and science. Research results, discussions. A feature of expert consulting is to provide the consultant with the necessary information resources in diagnosing problems, developing possible solutions to the problem and formulating recommendations for their implementation. Process consulting is carried out in the form of successive stages: diagnosing problems and needs, determining criteria and limitations for solving the problem, discussing methods for solving the problem and eliminating the problem. The peculiarity of project consulting is the joint activity of the consultant and employees of the organization, the result of which is the final product, a useful social, economic, educational effect. Learning consulting is based on the transfer of knowledge and experience, competencies in the learning process, which is aimed at overcoming actual and perceived barriers in students’ activities. Conclusion. It is shown that at different stages of consulting, it is possible to use combinations of different types of consulting, therefore, it is transformed into expert-training, process-training, expert-processor.
Introduction of innovative interdisciplinary programs as an effective pedagogical condition for the professional training of future primary school teachers for rural schools
UDC: 37.013
Authors: Tatyana N. Petrova; Andrey V. Rybakov; Jannet B. Temurkaeva; Saidbositkhon F. Turakhonov;
Introduction. In the article, the authors present the main methodological parameters (approaches and principles) of professional training of future teachers for primary rural schools. The purpose of this article is to analyze the methodological parameters of the introduction of innovative interdisciplinary programs into the educational process of the pedagogical college (using the example of mathematics) as an effective pedagogical condition for the professional training of primary school teachers to work in rural society. The program is based on the integrative-competence and ethno-cultural principle and is aimed at developing subject and general academic competencies in students-future teachers of primary rural schools in the process of teaching mathematics. The methodological basis of the research is the general pedagogical concepts of professional training of students-future primary school teachers (L. P. Anufrieva, S. I. Arkhangelsky, V. I. Zagvyazinsky et al.), problems of formation of professional competence of a rural school teacher (F. N. Alipkhanova, D. M. Abdurazakova, M. A. Galaguzova et al.). Research methods: theoretical (analysis, synthesis,); empirical (comparative-historical analysis, modeling of the experience of professional competence formation, observation, testing, questioning; ascertaining comparison, generalization of pedagogical experience; diagnostic and formative experiments); statistical (systematization of empirical materials; methods of statistical processing and measurement of experimental data – comparison of average scores). Experimental research base: Khasavyurt Pedagogical College, Khasavyurt district of the Republic of Dagestan. The scientific novelty of the research is the introduction of innovative interdisciplinary programs as an effective pedagogical condition for the professional training of future teachers of primary rural schools in the process of teaching mathematics. Conclusion. The introduction of innovative interdisciplinary programs into the educational process of the pedagogical college aimed at developing subject and general academic competencies among students-future teachers of primary rural schools ensures the success and effectiveness of professional training of teachers in the conditions of secondary vocational education.
Board games in improving schoolchildren's speaking skills
UDC: 37.01
Authors: Ivan E. Rodikov; Alexander A. Biryukov;
Introduction. Due to the significant role of the English language in international communication, the teaching and learning of English has received a lot of attention in Russia. However, it has been noted that students in ESL classes have weak and poor academic performance. As has been found by previous researchers who have studied a wide range of communicative language techniques to improve their speaking skills, one of the most effective methods to help students develop their speaking skills is the use of board games. The purpose of the article is to conduct a systematic review of previous studies and databases to determine the effectiveness of board games in the development of speaking skills of schoolchildren. Materials and methods. In order to better understand how students view the role of board games in speaking and learning, as well as how effective they are at the development of oral-speech skills, a systematic review was conducted. Three databases ‒ Google Scholar, ERIC and SAGE Journals ‒ were used to access a total of 35 articles from the years 2017 to 2021. Research results, discussion. According to the collected articles, the results indicated that the quantitative analysis of the study was mainly used to assess the value of board games in improving speech, while the qualitative analysis was mainly used to collect feedback on the use of board games. Conclusion. In general, the systematic review found that board games improved speaking skills, increased motivation to speak a foreign language, and increased peer interaction among students, which had a positive effect on schoolchildren’s speaking skills.
Artificial intelligence technologies in modern higher education
UDC: 378.1
Authors: Vera I. Toktarova; Olesya G. Popova; Ilnara I. Sagdullina; Valery A. Belyanin;
Introduction. Currently, digital technologies, in particular, artificial intelligence (AI), are being introduced into all spheres of life of modern society, including the practice of higher education. The purpose of this article is to reveal and justify the possibility of using artificial intelligence technology in higher education. Materials and methods. Theoretical, empirical and mathematical methods were used in the study. The methodological basis of the study was the classical and modern works of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of digital transformation of education and artificial intelligence. Research results, discussion. The paper highlights and discusses the main areas of using artificial intelligence technologies in the practice of higher education. The advantages and problems of introducing AI into the activities of modern higher education are described. During the study, a survey of students was conducted on the subject of knowledge and application of artificial intelligence technologies, which showed students’ interest in studying technology and the possibility of using its tools to solve professional problems and self-realization. An additional professional advanced training program “Artificial Intelligence: Starting into the IT Future” has been proposed. Conclusion. It is concluded that the implementation of artificial intelligence technologies in the practice of modern higher education should be carried out in two directions: the introduction of digital services and AI-based tools into the university’s activities, the development and inclusion of AI disciplines and educational courses in the curricula for training students of all areas and specialties.
The specifics of ethno-confessional education among the Old Believers of the southern Vyatka in the 20th century
UDC: 378 (470.342)
Authors: Irina Yu. Trushkova; Elena I. Titova;
Introduction. In the first decades of the 21st century the spiritual, patriotic orientation of the educational and upbringing system in the regions of Russia is being updated. In this regard, the pedagogical experience of various ethno-cultural and ethno-confessional communities becomes in demand, including in the Volga Federal District. The traditions of upbringing and education among the Old Believers living in the Volga region, including in the south of the Vyatka region, can be perceived as specific and having a stable effect. This model of education was based on a thorough study of the book heritage, native language, applied study of the sciences, and a very stable educational system. The purpose of this work is the analysis of the ethno-pedagogical experience of the Old Believer communities of southern Vyatka in the 20th century, the identification of a rational principle in it, which can be in demand even today. Materials and methods. The sources for this research are the pedagogical notes of the representatives of the Old Believer culture of the 1920-30s stored in the archive, the materials of the authors’ historical and everyday expeditions to the regions of the Kirov region in 2003-2022, periodicals. The authors conducted surveys of the population about the education of children in the Old Believer environment, taking into account the beginning of their education (the so-called “incoming diagnostics”) and the completion of education (the so-called “outgoing” diagnostics). Among the research methods is taking into account the per-sonal characteristics of students and regional cultural specifics. Among the methods of research is taking into account the personal characteristics of students and regional cultural specifics. Research results, discussion. The results of the research are associated with the definition of general and special in the model of education among the Old Believers of the southern Vyatka in the 20th century. The algorithms of labor, moral education, the role of “ancient Orthodoxy” in it are highlighted. The ratio of education and upbringing in different periods, adapta-tion to a secular school, including during the Soviet period are shown. Conclusion. Based on the analysis of the declared corps of sources, the dynamics of the model of education among the Old Believers in the southern Vyatka in the Soviet period is reconstructed, the resources for its reproduction and the directions for the possible use of some elements today are noted.
Some aspects of the organization of scientific research activities for future teachers of physics
UDC: 371.3
Authors: Svetlana O. Fominykh;
Introduction. The modern system of higher education assumes such a methodological approach which contributes to the inclusion of each student in active research activities, depending on his individual capabilities. This methodological approach is aimed at creating the optimal conditions for the development of the student’s individuality in the learning process. The educational process provides each student, based on his abilities, skills, interests, experience and aspirations, the opportunity to realize himself in cognition and research activities and to obtain new professional knowledge and skills. The purpose of the article is to identify the features of the development of research skills in future teachers of physics. Materials and methods. The methodology of the research implies the presence of theoretical methods (analysis of literary sources, systematization), as well as empirical ones – questionnaires of students. Research results, discussion. When performing projects in research work, physics students (future teachers) develop experimental skills, which include both intellectual and practical skills. However, students often have low motivation to use the opportunities of the Technopark of universal pedagogical competencies. Conclusion. A program is needed to include students in project activities within the framework of research work in the conditions of the Technopark.
The structure of the concept the Internet in the German linguoculture
UDC: 811.112.1:004.738.5
Authors: Svetlana I. Agagyulova;
Introduction. This article is devoted to the concept the Internet in the German language and its specific characteristics. Purpose: the article is dedicated to the investigation and analysis of the key lexemes of the concept the Internet in the German linguoculture. Materials and methods: the material for the article is taken from explanatory and etymological dictionaries of the Russian and German languages and other internet resources. There are several methods to investigate a concept the choice of which depends on the type of a concept, on a particular general approach and linguistic means of representation. There can be singled out several ways to study a concept: conceptual analysis, component analysis, comparative analysis, definition and stylistic interpretation. Results: the structure of the concept presupposes the investigation of its representation in the language by means of different lexemes, predicative verbal models and derivational units. Conclusion: the notional component of the concept structure in the linguistic consciousness is introduced by various semantic units and lexemes. The Internet is, actually, a net with particular functions of communication and information storage, which establishes a certain community with its own forms and rules of on-line communication and behavior. The majority of the lexemes to objectify the concept the Internet in the German language are the borrowings from English.
Children’s speech in the regional aspect
UDC: 811.512.111'271-053.2
Authors: Irina N. Anisimova; Alena Yu. Nikitina; Olga A. Petrova;
Introduction. The widespread use of the media and the literary Russian language at present noticeably levels out dialectal local regional features, but they continue to be observed and recorded by linguists, including in child's speech, and therefore, in our opinion, they need to be studied. The purpose of the article is to study the features of children’s speech in its regional version. Materials and methods. Spontaneous child's speech was recorded on electronic and paper media, with the help of diary entries in the smartphone calendar from the moment the first words of each observed child appeared, all new words and unusual speech processes were noted. The initial children's lexicon of four children (approximately from 1 to 4 years) was studied. The materials were collected on the territory of the Chuvash Republic from 2018 to 2022. The methods of longitutide observation and structural-semantic analysis were used. Research results, discussion. The study was carried out in an analytical and descriptive way: the facts of the influence of the Chuvash language on children’s speech (at all levels of the Russian language system) on the territory of the Chuvash Republic were studied and systematized. Manifestations of Chuvash pronunciation at the phonetic level were analyzed: early development of hissing and whistling sounds by children; the facts of the law of synharmonism. The functioning of Chuvashisms at the lexical level, as well as at the level of children’s speech grammar was investigated. Grammatical irregularities and unique word-forming innovations in spontaneous speech of children who were just starting to master their native Russian language in its regional version were noted. Conclusion. Children’s speech provides linguists with a rich relevant material for study, demonstrating that already at the initial stage of the development of the Russian language by children, regional markedness is manifested, in particular, phonetic and lexical elements of the presence of the Chuvash language in regional Russian speech. The characterized grammatical features of regional children’s speech testify to the general patterns of grammar formation in speech ontogenesis.
Classification of nicknames functioning in the English language of modern African countries
UDC: 811.282(8)
Authors: Anton V. Deyev;
Introduction. The relevance of the work is due to the important role of linguistic variability in the system of sociolinguistic and ethnographic research. Considering nicknames as a source of information about the culture, worldview and history of peoples will allow to deepen the knowledge of linguistic and extra-linguistic processes taking place on the territory of African countries, and learn more about English language variants. Purpose. The purpose of the study is to consider the main types of nicknames functioning in the territorial variants of the English language of African countries. Materials and methods. Among the leading methods of this study, it is worth mentioning the following: referencing of thematic literature, comparative, ethnographic, component semantic and comparative historical analysis. As the research material, nicknames appearing in colloquial speech, folklore, fiction and the media of Africa, which arouse the interest of researchers and are characteristic of local variants of the English language, were selected and analyzed. Results, discussion. Within the framework of the study, a review of the history of the formation of territorial variants of English in Africa was carried out, the features of nicknames as a lexical group were considered and the main types of nicknames in African versions of English were established. Among the latter, nicknames can be distinguished that reflect the circumstances at the time of the child's birth (they include those that convey the general mood of the era, the situation in the family and indicate the time of birth), nicknames with religious motivation, pejoratively ironic names and names chosen in honor of famous people. Conclusion. In the course of the study, it was found that nicknames in territorial variants of the English language are a product of the mutual influence of English and local languages. They have ethnic roots and act as a source of information about the culture, faith, and history of peoples.
Artistic specifics of conflict and characters in A. Pudin’s drama “The Red Amazon”
UDC: 821.511.152-2
Authors: Yulia V. Kabanova;
Introduction. The creative individuality of some playwrights has become a notable phenomenon in contemporary artistic discourse and has determined the direction of aesthetic searches of the Ural-Volga literatures during their transformation in the new realities. In Mordovian literature, such is the dramaturgical work of A. Pudin, which has determined many trends in the development of modern Mordovian national and Finno-Ugric drama. The purpose of the article is the definition of the artistic originality of the conflict and the characteristics of the characters in A. Pudin’s play “The Red Amazon”. Materials and methods. The material of the study was A. Pudin’s play “The Red Amazon”, considered using the structural and semantic method, which made it possible to identify and describe the compositional and character levels of the text, their artistic specificity and ideological and conceptual role in the work. Results, discussion. Penetration into the inner world of heroes, revealing their aspirations invisible to the eye is one of the main qualities of A. Pudin's drama, which is clearly and peculiarly revealed in the choice and resolution of the conflict in the play “The Red Amazon”, associated with the tragedy of the collapse of ideals, the issue of moral choice and human responsibility for the acts committed. Revealing the complex nature of the main character Efimiya Petrovna Sarayeva, the author explores the origins of this human destiny, in which not only events and achievements are intertwined, but also deep experiences and sufferings that forced the heroine rethink much. Conclusion. The analysis of the play “The Red Amazon” expands the understanding of the playwright's work, allows us to identify his individual features, to comprehend the specifics of the development of Mordovian drama at the present stage. The author in this play remains faithful to his style ‒ a close study of the inner motives of the hero’s behavior, a deep penetration into the world of his feelings and experiences for the deeds he committed in the past. A. Pudin attentively peers into modern reality, finds in it the origins of the conflict of the play and the reasons for the behavior of his characters.
Mineralogical vocabulary in English neological discourse
UDC: 81’33:811.111
Authors: Veronika V. Katermina; Inna. V. Vorobyeva;
Introduction. Mineralogical vocabulary is one of the important means in the English neological discourse as a way of recreating and reproducing concepts related to culture, human mentality, traditions, and trends present in society. The use of mineralogical vocabulary in English neological discourse is associated with the desire to globalize knowledge which is typical of the modern period of development of science and technology in the information society. Mineralogical neological units in the English discourse reflect the peculiarities of the worldview and the system of value relations of society. The aim of the paper is to describe English neological units with a mineralogical component. Scientific novelty lies in the fact that a class of new lexical units is subjected to research. As a result, a classification of modern English neological units with the mineralogical component presented in electronic lexicographic sources is proposed. Materials and methods. The research material was the Cambridge Dictionaries Online Blog. Such methods of scientific knowledge as analysis of literature, generalization of experience, classification and deduction were used. Research results, discussion. The analysis of neological units with a mineralogical component in the English discourse taken from electronic lexicographic sources allows us to speak about new trends which may be associated with the development of Internet technologies and social networks: the presence of various discursive fields in which English mineralogical neologisms play an axiological role, highlighting emotional-evaluative and expressive-stylistic connotations realized by the indicated lexemes as well as the most frequent mineralogical components among the neologisms of the English discourse. Conclusion. The functioning of neologisms with a mineralogical component in the English discourse testifies to their certain figurative and aesthetic charge and their undoubted significance in the structure of the images they create.
Demonyms (formulas of curses) as a kind of communicemes in the Chuvash language
UDC: 398.41(=512.111)
Authors: Galina N. Semenova; Nadezhda I. Yakimova; Irina V. Sofronova;
Introduction. This study is devoted to the description of a fragment of the Chuvash worldview dedicated to demonyms (formulas of curses). The formulas of curses were discovered in ancient inscriptions and accompany the history of mankind to the present day. The research problem chosen in the article continues this tradition, but is relevant in the context of studying the linguistic characteristics of the small genre of folklore - the formulas of curses, which are one of the types of euphemistic substitutions in phraseological units, due to the fact that it is made on the material of the national (Chuvash) language. In our opinion, the most correct interpretation of the term demonym in this article is not as a formula of curses, but as an included component (the names of evil spirits - demons) of special linguistic units in the form of threats, wishes and incantations, etc. This is a system that has been little studied by modern folklorists. The formulas of curses are considered both as a ritual and as a text. Naturally, in the process of communication, a person tries to express his emotions, attitude to others, to those present. Representatives of different peoples in the past experienced life troubles, explained by difficult conditions, reflected in the communication process in the form of special linguistic units, considered by researchers as a small genre of folklore or formulas of curses. The purpose of the study is to analyze the formulas of concepts and identify in their semantics and structural organization and national-specific features. The methods and materials of the research are structural and semantic analysis of linguistic units, linguoculturological and ethnolinguistic analysis. The results of the study. In the article, for the first time in Chuvash linguistics, the most ancient layer of the vocabulary of the language is explored. Many of the above examples of curse formulas are distinguished by national and cultural specifics and reflect the socio-historical and spiritual experience of the Chuvash ethnic group, the peculiarities of the people’s thinking. In the course of the study, observations were used on the everyday live speech of native speakers, as well as the formulas of curses were analyzed from the linguoculturological and contextual points of view. Examples selected by sampling from dictionaries of the Chuvash language served as illustrative material.
The structure of the genre as an important element of differentiation of functional styles in modern Russian
UDC: 81.373
Authors: Anna S. Statsenko; Natalia Yu. Zimina ;
Introduction. The genre is one of the fundamental features (along with such as, for example, the field of activity, goal setting, language features), with the help of which functional styles are differentiated. The definition and subsequent study of the components that allow a particular text to be assigned to a particular genre, and subsequently to a style, will allow for a clearer differentiation of styles within the framework of functional stylistics. The purpose of the work consists of the identification of clear criteria in separating one type of text from another, one genre from another, which allows not only to structure texts within one functional style, but also to determine the distinctive features of each individual genre. Materials and methods. The work is based on the analysis of texts of various styles using the descriptive method and the method of observation, within which the features inherent in a particular language genre were studied and generalized. Research results, discussion. Based on the analysis, the main criteria of the genre as the final text of the implementation of the functional style were differentiated, such as: function, author's intention, form, structure, subject matter, volume, number of problems, method of transmitting information, subjectivity, image of the addressee and addresser, extralinguistic factors. Conclusion. The study of the genre as a multifunctional, complex structured, multi-aspect type of text will make it possible to identify a number of its internal and external factors, which, in turn, will allow for a deep linguistic analysis of texts of various styles. The implementation of a particular style in a particular genre allows one to more accurately and visually consider its language markers, ways of functioning in a particular language situation, to concretize its embodiment in discourse, to consider it from a psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic point of view.
Features of the functioning of parametric adjectives in political discourse
UDC: 811.161.1:398
Authors: Zhou Chunyan;
Introduction. Modern political discourse is the object of study of various disciplines. In the science of language, political discourse is studied through the prism of such paradigms as linguoculturology, anthropocentric linguistics, cognitive linguistics, discourse studies, etc. This article is aimed at studying the features of the use of parametric adjectives in the Russian-language political discourse. Parametric adjectives in Russian are an important component in the transfer of dimensional values and the display of empirical signs of measuring a certain parameter. However, due to the dual semantics of many lexical units, the word cannot always be used in its original meaning. The relevance of the work is due to the fact that, despite a large number of studies in the field of discourse studies, many issues still remain unresolved that require comprehensive research practice. Thus, the study of the use of parametric adjectives in political discourse is of great interest due to their ambiguous semantics and complex pragmatic function. The purpose of the work is to identify the features of the use of parametric adjectives in Russian-language political news texts. The research material is political news texts found in the Internet media “RIA Novosti”, selected by the continuous sampling method. Important in the research of the functioning of adjectives was the study of the entire political text: the examples given reflect whole sentences from news reports. The article reveals the issue of the use of parametric adjectives in Russian political discourse, the lexical meanings of adjectives (direct and figurative) are given, and their role in political texts is indicated. Conclusions. Analysis of the use of adjectives in Russian political discourse that reflect a particular measure has shown that these linguistic units serve, to a greater extent, to convey the figurative meaning of a particular parametric lexeme and represent the assessment of abstract phenomena.