VESTNIK 4(40) 2020

VESTNIK 4(40) 2020
Date publication on the site:
2020-12-17 16:42:54
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UDC: 372.8
Authors: Svetlana A. Arefeva; Olesya V. Arefeva;
The purposeof this article is to consider the main types of independent work and approaches to defin-ing its essence, methods and techniques for organizing independent cognitive activity of students in the process of studying Russian as a foreign language, to reveal the main types of independent cognitive activity of students aimed at assimilating theoretical information about the Russian language and forming communication skills and abilities. The introductionreveals the goals and objectives of independent work as a means of increasing the cognitive activity of students and the development of the cognitive independence of the individual in the process of professional training at a university; the problem of independent work in the pedagogical tradition and its rel-evance for modern higher education are considered; the main types of independent cognitive activity and types of independent work are described, with the help of which the reproductive and creative independent cognitive activity of students of a pedagogical university is organized. The main part offers materials and methodsto help students studying Russian as a foreign language. The content of the discipline “Russian as a foreign language” and the features of its study on the basis of system-activity and textual approaches, implying the relationship of classroom (contact) independent work under the guidance and direct participation of a teacher in classrooms and extracurricular independent work of students, performed in extracurricular time without the participation of a teacher, but according to his instructions are revealed. Particular attention is paid to the types of independent work as ways of organizing certain types of independent cognitive activity aimed at the development and for-mation of the cognitive abilities of an individual: attention, memory, thinking and speech. To help students, tasks and exercises are offered for independent work and the successful study of Russian as a foreign language, an al-gorithm for their implementation is given, questions and tasks are given to check the correctness of independent completion of tasks and control the results of independent cognitive activity. The resultsof the study were re-flected in authors’ publications, were reported at international and all-Russian scientific and practical confer-ences. The article provides information on the approbation andimplementation of the research results in the edu-cational process of the Mari State University. The conclusionof the article contains conclusions based on the results of this study as a whole, and suggests ways to enhance the independent cognitive activity of students of a pedagogical university.
UDC: 316.6-057.875
Authors: Svetlana A. Domracheva; Irina E. Dremina;
Abstract. Introduction.The article highlights the importance of moral self-determination in the light of national youth policy. The normative documents that regulate the issues of education, socialization and prevention of so-cially dangerous behavior of young people are noted. Moral self-determination is considered as one of the most important characteristics of socialization, its essence lies in the fact that the individual is able to make his own moral choice, without violating the norms of morality and human existence. Purpose of this article:theoretical justification and empirical research of moral self-determination of the individual and propensity to socially dan-gerous behavior on a sample of student youth studying at a University. Materials and methods.The materials of the research were normative legal documentsand scientific papers which considered the issues of moral self-determination and propensity to socially dangerous behavior. Theoretical and empirical research methods were used. Psychodiagnostic tools were used: the methodology “Moral self-determination of the individual” (A. E. Vorobyova, A. B. Kupreichenko), test of PDB –propensity to deviant behavior (E. V. Leus). Research result.The article presents the results of an empirical study aimed at studying the level of moral self-determination, the degree of expression of its individual aspects: moral concepts, moral orientations, moral strategies and propensity to socially dangerous behavior, undertaken on a sample of students (N = 130). The inverse statistically signifi-cant relationship between moral self-determination and the tendency to deviant behavior is revealed. Conclusion.The followingconditionsthat contribute to the positive moral self-determination of students are formulated: involvement of students in the volunteer movement, design and research activities; familiarization with moral values; stimulation of the development of professional competencies, socially significant personal qualities, communicative properties, creating conditions for self-realization in the educational process.
UDC: 371.398
Authors: Svetlana A. Mukhina ; Mariya N. Gavrilova; Olga V. Polozova; Irina S. Zimina;
Abstract. Introduction.According to statistics, in our country, 25 % of victims die from failure to provide first aid at the scene of an emergency. Up to 70 % of such deaths could have been prevented if a person who knew how to provide first aid was next to the victim. Therefore, the problem of first aid, as well as training it, is still included in the list of problems of human life safety. The purposeof the article is to determine the methodo-logical features of teachingstudents first aid. Materials and methods:tests “Knowledge in the field of first aid”, “Checking the formation of first aid skills”. The experimental study involved 126 respondents: 70 of themare the control group (CG) and 56 are the experimental group (EG). Results, discussion.The study found that more than half of the studied sources contain a variety of techniques for teaching first aid related to additional medical supplies that are not always available. Therefore, the main focus of the study was onthe method of teaching first aid using improvised means. In addition, the entire range of first aid was divided into parts. Based on the results of diagnostics of the formation of knowledge and skills in the field of first aid among students, in order to improve the effectiveness of training, it is advisable to include in the training course de-tailed mechanisms of damage, injuries, conditions and actions for first aid, actions to prevent them or minimize the negative impact. Conclusion.The need to focus on the “dialog of first aid methods”in the training process leads to the construction of an open and easy-to-modernize information base with the allocation of the main blocks in the content of first aid training methods, which will allowthem to be quickly and easily edited and adapted to the target audience.
UDC: 373.2
Authors: Liliya A. Pozharskaya;
Abstract.Introduction.The lack of systematic work on the development of a motivational and behavioral safety culture in aroad transport environment in the educational process is dailyreflected in the lack of knowledge, skills and abilities among teachers, schoolchildren, andparents, and, consequently, a lack of understanding by each participant of the educational process of properly built motivation to preserve life and health, unwillingness toactively broadcast this position to society. As a result, the implementation of a draft model for the development of a motivational-behavioral safety culture in a road transport environment is extremely important in preserving the life and health of preschoolers. The article presents the program and describes the project of the draftmodel for the formation of a motivational-behavioral safety culture in a road transport environment. Purpose of the study: generalization and systematization of work experience on the development of motivational-behavioral road safety culture among preschoolers. Materials and methods. The draft model for the development of motiva-tional-behavioral safety culture provides a more effective achievement of child safety on the road. Analysis of theoretical studies and practical implementation of the project allows us to conclude that working with children to form a motivational-behavioral safety culture in a road transport environment using project activities contributes to the development of risk-avoidant thinkingand leads to a decrease in child road traffic injuries. Research results, discussion. The implementation of the program involves a systematic multifaceted work, the basis of which are creative forms and methods of teaching and upbringing of children, active forms of organizing training and education of parents on the problem of forming a motivational-behavioral safety culture in a road transport environment. During the implementation of the program, conditions were created in preschool educational organizations to instill in children sustainable skills of safe behavior on the road. Conclusion. The developmentofa motivational-behavioral safety culture in a road transport environment becomesa solution to many social problems of modern society.
UDC: 378
Authors: Dina A. Semenova ;
Abstract. Introduction. The present stage of societydevelopment dictates new increased requirements for the level of training of specialists of any profile. The goal and objectives of education are changing, as well as the technologies used in the educational process. The determining factor is the direction of the use of Internet tech-nologies in the educational process. This process also becomes relevant during the implementation of projects, especially when project teammembers are not nearby and they have to communicateusing the Internet. Purpose: introduction of Internet services into the practice of implementing training projects of the full life cycle as part of the modernization of the training process. Materials and methods. The integrationof Internet technol-ogies into the educational process allows not only to increase the efficiency of the educational process, but also to develop the communicative abilities of students, make them active subjects of cognition, take into account theirindividual characteristics and carry out independent educational activities during which the student learns and develops himself. Internet technologies, including a multimedia device,the capabilities of the Inter-net, means for interactive interaction, have successfully established themselves in education as an effective ped-agogical tool. The role of network services is increasing, allowing you to effectively organize communication, individual and joint activities of students, to form the competencies necessary for the formation of a professional specialist. Internet technology services are becoming a familiar addition to the traditional educational process, contributing to the formation of an e-learning system. Results, discussion. Internet technologies make it possible to fundamentally change the attitude towards education, the need to continuously improve the cultural and educational level of students throughout their lives. Conclusion. Internet technologies contain many tools that can be useful for individual and collaborative learning activities. Such services are focused on the network interaction of people, and opportunities for communication and cooperation are important for education in this environment.
UDC: 378
Authors: AnatolyS. Chibakov ; Dmitry A. Krylov; Linar G. Akhmetov;
Abstract. The article provides a brief analysis of the methodological principles of the activity approach, which defends the active nature of thinking as an activity and process. The development of active thinking and personalityoccurs in activities in which a person acts as an active subject. The results of thinking are images. Image con-struction is described by the activity paradigm. The student's thinkingactivity in educational activities is most fully manifested when solving problems with practice-oriented content and when performing various types of practical tasks. At the same time, we believe that the activity of thinking is broader than universaleducational actions due to selectivity, volitionalqualities, attention, and performance results. In the experimental part of the study, indicators of thinking activity arenamed: planning skills; motives for choosing a task; logic and consistency; optimality (minimization ofunnecessary actions); the level of reasoning (descriptive, explanatory, predictive) and their evidence; independence (group autonomy); focus (purposefulness); the quality of conclu-sions, the desire to understand the shortcomings andeliminate comments; time spent. The article describes the procedures of pedagogical measurements related to obtaining analytical information and methods of its pro-cessing, determining the generalindicator of thinking activity and the dynamics of its development. Based on the data of accompanying control, methods and techniques for stimulating students' activity in educational and practical activities are proposed. The exclusive role of dialoguecommunication and reflection in the professional developmentof a competent specialist is emphasized. Based on the results obtained, the conclusion is made about the development of thinking activity, and along with it, the culture of thinking in compliance with methodo-logical and organizational-procedural principles, systematic accompanying control and accompanying stimulationof students in educational activities in various types of practical training sessions.
UDC: 821.161.1
Authors: Gulzada G. Bagautdinova;
Abstract. Introduction. The first few studies devoted to identifying the features of the rhythmic organization of I. A. Goncharov’s small prose appeared at the beginning of the XXI century. Therhythm-forming principles are very different: there are not only factors inherent in the structuring of prose (“rhythmic prose”, “ornamental prose”), but also verse-forming features (rhyme). Purpose:to identify some rhythm-forming tools aimed at cre-atingan artistic type of “a man of good taste” in the first letter of A. Chelsky to Vasily Vasilyevich from the “Letters of a metropolitan friend to a provincial groom” by I. A. Goncharov. Materials and methods: the main research object is the rhythmic organization of the writer's small prose. The main methods that allow us to identify the specifics of the rhythm in the desired work are historical-genetic and typological. Results, discussion.If thedominant rhythmic unit in creating artistic types “dandy” and “lion” is a prosaic stanza, then rhythmic passages that describe the type of a man of good taste, can be divided into two parts: in the first part the type of man of good taste is created using the method of comparison, and the second part of reasoning is built using the construction “rhetorical question –answer”. Conclusion:the analysis of the thematic passage describing the type of good tasteallowed us to come to the conclusion that I. A.Goncharov created a graphically clear, rhythmically structured work both at the level of form and content. The rhythmic framework is created by identical syntactic constructions, accompanied by morphological, lexical, and ideological-thematic repetitions.Despite the fact that these repetitions are inherent in “rhythmic prose” and “ornamental prose”, I. A. Goncharov is not repeated in the use of techniques. The rhythmic pattern is refined, complex, and very fanciful.
UDC: 811.111
Authors: Alla R. Boduleva; Luiza R. Saifutdinova ; Anastasia S. Salina ;
Abstract. Introduction.Nowadays fake news and materials are considered a significant factor in the dissemina-tion of certain opinions in mass media and an effective tool to influence and attract public attention. The article discusses the concept “fake news”, as well as the features of its use in the modern Internet space. The article is devoted to fake news as a special type of transmission and dissemination of information due to the specifics of the modern media space. The purposeof this article is the analysis of linguistic peculiarities of fake news about Donald Trump and the election campaign 2020 in the USA. Materials and methods.The research material was the news from English Internet resources. The methods of semantic and linguistic analysis were used as part of the study. Results and discussion.The article deals with such linguistic methods of influence as distortion of information, isolation of the addressee, participation effect, simplification, as well as the use of euphemisms, terminology and lexical markers. We also analyze the attractive function of fake news as a means of manipulat-ing readers' minds. The article provides real examples of fake news distributed in social networks and via messengers. Conclusion.Thus, the article analyzes the news related to American President Donald Trump and the 2020 US election campaign. As a result of the study it was revealed that linguistic means are used to attract the readers’ attention and mislead them
UDC: 811.111
Authors: Olga V. Kosonogova;
Abstract. The article is devoted to the problem of translating the propername-based terms (onymic units) of the English-language legal discourse into Russian language, the description and analysis of methods of translations applied in the course of investigation.Methods of investigation. In the course of this study the authoremployed a comparative analysis method, descriptive method based on the analysis and classification of the vocabulary layers studied, a continuous sampling method, and a dictionary definition method,when selecting the actual ma-terial used, method of quantitative analysis. Materials. 2000 proper name-based terms taken from the various samples of English-language discourse of law –texts of laws, legislative acts, court precedents –have been ana-lyzed in the course of investigation. The English and Americanlexicographic sources have been used, as well. Results and Discussion.As the main methods of translating proper name-based terms, the author identified the following methods oftranslation: transcription,transliteration,loan-word translation (calque), descriptive meth-od, as well as combinations of various translation methods.Conclusions.An analysis of the translation of proper name-based terms showed that as a result of the study it was found that the choice of translation transformations should be carried out depending on both linguistic factors, such as the type of word-formation models of proper name-based terms, categories of proper names, which served as a source for the formation of similar terms, etc., and extra-linguistic factors, such as the content of the subject area of the English legal discourse, which is based on the case lawarising from this nature, cultural identity of onymic nominations. The results of the research can be used in university courses on terminology studies, translation studies, lexicology, linguistics, and by interpret-ers and translators working with all types of English legal texts.
UDC: 821.161.1
Authors: Olga S. Krylova;
Abstract.Purpose.To establish the semantic volume of the concept of “home” in N.S. Leskov’s artistic pictureof the world, the image of Pavel Gordanov, one of the main characters of the anti-nihilistic novel “On the Knives” (1870–1871), is considered in the context of thetheme of homelessness. Methods. The study uses an integrated approach that combines historical-typological, comparative-contrastive, descriptive, motivational and conceptual methods that bring the text into the cultural sphere. Introduction.The disappearance or loss of a home is an archetypal plot, as it goes back to early forms of verbal creation and is constantly present in fiction. Homelessness contradicts the national concept of home as a durable, lasting and orderly world and marks a break with the past.Homelessness is opposed to home, it is associated not only with the desacralization of the function of the dwelling, but also with the inner untidiness of the heroes, loneliness, the idea of being cut off from their roots, moving away from the spiritual principle.Discussions.The absence of one's own home is a detail that determines the unfavorable world order and attitude of Pavel Gordanov. The writer creates a collective image of a nihilist, typical of that time, which does not arouse sympathy amongthe readers and demonstrates a clear rejection on the part of the narrator. Conclusions.Homelessness is associated with a false ending, with the destruction of norms and traditions, the loss of God. N.S. Leskov's understanding of home isconsistent with the concept of home in traditional Russian culture, in which the writer was brought up, with Slavophilism, which substantiated the originality of the historical development of Russia, which is fundamentally different from the Western European direction.This perception determines the characteristic features of the author's worldview. The correct house in the understanding of N.S. Leskov is a prayer house, a house of God.
UDC: 821.512.141, 10.01.02
Authors: Gulnur M. Nabiullina;
Abstract. Introduction. The events of the late twentieth century had a huge impact on the further development of Bashkir literature. Along with new tasks, the theme of the heroic feat of the people for spiritual freedom, the creation of an artistic image of its outstanding representatives is still the subject of special attention. Our purpose is to study the image of the poet-educator Akmulla in modern Bashkir prose in the axiological dimension. The material for the analysis was the works of Bashkir writers dedicated to Akmulla. To achieve this goal, the authors used cultural-historical, hermeneutical methods, using the contextual and cultural principles. Research results and discussions. Genuine civic consciousness and humanistic orientation of M. Akmulla's work are inex-tricably linked with the general trends of the XIX century and at the same time have their own characteristics, distinguishing him from the historical process by an organic combination of two principles –religious and educational, which allowed him to take his place among the most diverse segments of the population. Sessen’s life, filled with events, achievements and searches, creates his image, carrying deep artistic, aesthetic and moral traditions of his people, revealing the spirit of the atmosphere of that era, covering the events of real history. Worries about the fate of the people raise Akmulla’s creativity to a high level of development. His poems, em-bodied in a perfect artistic form, bearing revelations not only for the era in which the poet lived, but also for the contemporaries, act as a system of religious and moral measurement of values. Conclusion. Thus, the analysis showed that the artistic image of Akmulla, immortalized in the works of modern writers such as M. Yamaletdinov, L.A.-Yakshibayevа, Y. Khammatov et al. and clarifying historical and social values, is of absolute interest. It explainsthe historical and social meaning of the poet-educator. Mullah, who calls for enlightenment, transforms the life of the people with his teaching and creativity, a poet transformed by the Islamic religion –this is the ideological basis of the artistic and imaginative solution of the educator's character in modern Bashkir literature.
UDC: 81
Authors: Yulia S. Starostina ; Marina V. Cherkunova;
Abstract. Introduction. The article is devoted to the systemization of linguistic means conveying the category of expressiveness in English announcements of cultural events. The aimof the study is a qualitative and quantita-tive analysis of expressive means with the purpose of identifying nuclear, peripheral, and optional tools for form-ing the expressive level of the announcement. Materials and methods. The work was performed on the material of one hundred texts announcing various kinds of exhibitions organized by museums in England and Scotland from 2015 to 2020. Methods of structural, semantic, discourse analysis, as well as the method of quantitative calculations were used in the work. Results and discussion.In the course of the study, the analysis of the struc-tural and content parameters of the mini-text of the announcement was carried out and a correlation between the location of these elements and the implementation of the attractive function of the text was established. In addi-tion, it was concluded that there is an inextricable combination of informative and attractive means within the framework of the announcement: the tools for implementing the informative function of the text simultaneously act as attractive ones. At the next stage of the study, the actual linguistic tools for the formation of an expressive aspect of the announcement at the lexical, syntactic, and stylistic levels were considered, and the quantitative in-dicators of these linguistic means were determined per one text. As a result, a hierarchy of means which form expressiveness within the framework of a mini-text was compiled with the allocation of nuclear, peripheral, and optional elements. Conclusion. The implementation of the key (attractive) function of the announcement is achieved by a specific arsenal of tools distributed across all text levels; the specific combinatorics and the priori-ty of these tools are determined by the fact that the announcement belongs to the category of mini-texts and by the need to perform a complex pragmatic task in a limited text volume.