VESTNIK 3(39) 2020

VESTNIK 3(39) 2020
Date publication on the site:
2020-09-23 09:57:43
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UDC: 378.095
Authors: Elvira M. Vorontsova;
The article describes the modular teaching of the discipline “Informatics. Medical Informatics” at a higher educational institution and the experience of teaching at the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Mari State University” is considered. In the process of studying theoretical disciplines in the 1st year, the future doctor must learn to apply modern methods of scientific knowledge, digital competencies, and solve professional problems using information technologies. The use of the electronic educational environment Moodle by students is described, which ensures the prompt receipt of professionally relevant educational information via the Internet at any time and through any device. In the course “Informatics. Medical Informatics”, more attention should be paid to the study of specific problems with the help of appropriate applied programs that will effectively prepare future doctors for solving problems in the use of information technologies when processing medical information in information systems; to the development and implementation of information technologies in modern medical practice; to the maintenance of reporting documentation in medical and scientific organizations using information technology; to the organization and planning of the work of medical personnel who are the conductors of the ideas of health care informatization. Particular attention is paid to additional skills and techniques for preparing medical documentation, the specifics of statistical tables, accompanying scientific reports with illustrative presentation materials, data protection, development of medical resources on the Internet to search for professional information on certain sections of medical knowledge, input and presentation of medical data, bar coding information, input and processing of graphic images in medicine and healthcare, the medical information system “Medialogue”, medical information in the information search system “Garant”, which contains numerous links to current legislative acts, regulatory documents of the healthcare system and compulsory health insurance.
UDC: 373.3
Authors: Aida Ch. Talypova; Ilgiz M. Sinagatullin; Оlesya G. Kalashnikova;
The development of elements of information literacy of junior schoolchildren is one of the most important issues of teaching in the contemporary primary school in accordance with the program requirements. Based on the results of a special analysis of the selected subjects for grades 1−4, we can note the presence of a separate section which provides students with the abilities to work with the texts that have drawings, tables, schemes, diagrams. Pupils are also supposed to learn the simplest skills of reading information presented in a visually-symbolic form. It is by working with the simplest tasks that a smooth transfer to working with more complex tasks is carried out. At the primary school there arises a need to consider the methods of structurization, analysis and the assessment of information. The use of such methods requires the skills of conducting calculations, presenting information in numbers and visualizing it in tables, diagrams and graphics. This article describes two directions of the development of information literacy of junior schoolchildren, specifies a set of skills and the content of the material of each direction: “Reading. Work with a text” and “The development of ICT-competence of learners". Taking as a basis the analysis of the psychological and pedagogical literature as well as the systematization and generalization of primary school teachers’ experience, the shortcoming in the formulation of tasks and in the provision of different forms of information were indicated. The authors of textbooks and working teachers often drop out these issues as being unnecessary elements and, as a consequence, the correct approach to reading the corresponding information is not developed. In view of the foregoing, the initial positions are determined and additional tasks aimed at enhancing the level of information literacy of junior schoolchildren are proposed.
UDC: 378.12
Authors: Olga S. Krylova; Dmitry A. Krylov; Evgeniya S. Bakhtina;
The article deals with the improvement of the system of publication competence formation among university teachers in the process of their professional activities. This problem is one of the most relevant and demanded in the theory and practice of higher education, and the authors see the use of the modeling method as one of the effective ways to solve it, suggesting the construction of such a system that would function similarly to the process under study. The purpose of the article is to identify and characterize the main structural components (goal, objectives, principles, pedagogical conditions, directions, content, forms, methods, means and result) of the model of publication competence formation among teachers of a modern university. Materials and methods. To achieve the goal of scientific research, a complex of: theoretical methods: the study of scientific and methodological, special literature on the problems of the competence approach in education, inductive-deductive methods of the fundamental provisions of psychology and pedagogy of higher education, comparative analysis and generalization in the field of historical retrospective of the research results of the works of foreign practitioners, conceptual and theoretical description of advanced methods of managing scientific activities and systematization of practical experience in assessing the quality of the scientific and educational process of a modern university; empirical research methods: study of legal materials and analytical reports of leading scientific journals, content analysis of information and consulting websites of domestic and foreign educational organizations, Russian and foreign pedagogical scientific literature on the management of scientific activities in education, presented in the electronic library system was used. Research results. Discussion. The features and specifics of the functioning of the main structural components of the model are considered: goals and objectives, principles, content, forms and methods. It is emphasized that the presented model has a single indivisible character, since all structural components are interconnected, interdependent and function to achieve a given final result - increasing the effectiveness of publication competence formation among teachers in a modern university.
UDC: 796.386.796.015
Authors: Gennady M. Nikolaev; Svetlana N. Fedorova;
For a long time, the question of timely identification of abilities in children and adolescents with a propensity for certain types of motor activity has not been studied in detail, although there was undoubtedly a need for this. This need explains the interest of researchers in the problem of selection and training of sports reserves. Since the 50s, coaches and employees of physical education and sports, speaking on the pages of sports publications, talk about the need to improve the selection system, improve its quality and efficiency, overcome the difficulties associated with the lack of methodological approaches to accounting for the acceleration process in the modern world, and so on. These questions have remained relevant to this day. The purpose of the study is to identify and characterize the methods of sports selection of the most gifted children for game sports. Materials and methods: the research is based on the theoretical analysis of scientific and methodological literature on the problem, as well as the experience of coaches in game sports using various methods of sports selection. The results of the study discussion: the article summarizes the data of theoretical and experimental works on the problem of selection of children for practicing game sports. Tests and diagnostic methods, with the help of which it is possible to identify the level of development of certain abilities and qualities of young athletes are characterized. Special attention is paid to the method of reaction to a moving object (RMO) for assessing the propensity of young athletes for game sports. Conclusion. The results of the study allow us to conclude that the developed method can be used to select and identify the most gifted athletes for game sports.
UDC: 37.01
Authors: Alisa A. Stenishcheva;
In the modern world, as demographics, social conditions, and political circumstances change, the question of creating conditions for the development of a multicultural personality with the aim of fostering social cohesion and tolerance towards other nationalities is acute. A multicultural education, which is based on the equality of social justice, is called upon to achieve this goal. The main research methods are: theoretical analysis of foreign and domestic literature on the research problem, analysis of the relationship of concepts such as multiculturalism and polyculturalism. The components necessary for the formation of multiculturalism in pedagogy are the reduction of prejudice, the expansion of educational and social culture. The pedagogical problems of multiculturalism mainly deal with the issues of sociocultural, linguistic and psychological adaptation of foreign ethnic children, the support of migrant children in a multicultural educational environment, in connection with which the principles of multicultural education are determined, and the features of multicultural teacher training for working with foreign ethnic children are studied. Scientific, theoretical and practical aspects of the organization of educational work with students are being developed in the modern school. It becomes important to understand what a multicultural person is and how he differs from “ordinary” people, at what stage the definition and tracking of the conditions under which a cultural identity turns into a multicultural one is taking place. These aspects require special attention, as they relate to efforts to resolve conflicts in the existing society. Potentially, a multicultural style can be formed and manifest itself in any society or culture that faces new views, a different way of life. In early 2020, the changes associated with the coronavirus pandemic, have revived the need to preserve our own and collective cultural identity. Along with disorientation, new opportunities appear in order to realize our individuality and the identity of the human race as a whole. Perhaps, right now, a new type of individual is emerging, which is part of a community of citizens who want to see the world as one and feel like something whole with all its parts.
UDC: 378.1
Authors: Vera I. Toktarova; Svetlana N. Fedorova;
The article deals with the problem of assessing the effectiveness of an adaptive learning system characterized by adaptation to specific conditions of the learning process, depending on the criteria aimed at perfecting and improving the quality of training. The purpose of the article: theoretical substantiation of the algorithm for using diagnostic tools to assess the effectiveness of the adaptive system of mathematical training of students in the electronic educational environment of higher educational institutions. Materials and methods. The materials for research are scientific papers that examine the issues of diagnostics and assessment of the level of mathematical training of students in adaptive learning systems using information and communication tools. The study used theoretical, empirical, and mathematical methods. The results of the research. The system of assessing the effectiveness of the adaptive system of mathematical training of students is represented by regulatory and organizational, psychological and pedagogical, software and hardware, communication, and personnel criteria. Each criterion was revealed through specific indicators, which were later measured and assessed. The authors used the Saaty analytic hierarchy process to rank the selected groups of criteria / the criteria within each group / the parameters corresponding to the criteria in the developed diagnostic tools. Conclusion. The developed diagnostic tools allow monitoring the effectiveness of mathematical training of university students in the context of e-learning. Rational diagnostics of the effectiveness of mathematical training in the framework of the developed model is aimed at improving the learning process by identifying gaps in the mathematical training of students and further correction of the learning process.
UDC: 378.2
Authors: Olga L. Shabalina; Sergey Yu. Lavrentiev; Dmitry A. Krylov;
The modern period of reforming the entire system of vocational education is characterized by growing competition between various forms of educational institutions ownership, and changes in the external socio-economic environment have necessitated pedagogical consulting in the field of introducing innovations into universities educational activities. The purpose of the article is to analyze and characterize the main traditional and innovative approaches to the formation of management consulting in the context of the scientific management development. Materials and methods. To achieve the goal of scientific research, a complex of: theoretical methods: the study of scientific and methodological and special literature on the problems of management consulting in educational organizations, inductive – deductive methods of the fundamental provisions of psychology and pedagogy of higher education, comparative analysis and generalization in the field of historical retrospective of research results of foreign practitioners – consultants, a conceptual and theoretical description of advanced methods of managing innovation and systematization of practical experience in assessing the quality of the educational process of a modern university; empirical research methods: legal materials and analytical reports of leading consulting agencies dealing with personnel coaching study, information and consulting websites of domestic and foreign educational organizations content analysis, Russian and foreign pedagogical scientific literature on the problems of innovation management in education, presented in the electronic library system was used. Research results. In historical retrospect, the evolution of management activity can be traced through the development of the following scientific management stages: the school of scientific management; theory of administrative management; school of “human relations”; theory of organization as a social system; bounded rationality theory and behavioral decision theory; school of quantitative assessments; systemic and situational approaches to management; strategic management concept; the theory of organizational culture, etc. Conclusion. Thus, in order to improve the process of professional training of students in a modern university, the above provisions allow us to refer to the leading tendencies of innovative, variable, open development of educational consulting.
UDC: 82-7.09:111.852
Authors: Saidat Kh. Yakhiyaeva; Larisa V. Berezina; Zarema N. Isaeva;
This article discusses such concepts as “comic”, “humor”, “satire”. The level of perception of humorous, satirical works by Dagestan schoolchildren through the prism of their aesthetic and comic content is considered. The concept of “comic”, which was not previously distinguished in the national scientific tradition, is described. Purpose: to clarify, through a specific analysis, the widespread formalistic ideas about the content of the comic in the humorous works of M. Zoshchenko due to the belonging of satire and humor to one category. Materials and methods. The study uses data from a survey conducted in secondary schools no. 7, no. 3 in Makhachkala, the Republican Multidisciplinary Lyceum (RMLI DOD) and in rural schools of the Republic of Dagestan to identify the level of students’ knowledge in Russian literature, conducting conversations on the topic of satirical and humorous works to eliminate the difficulties of the topic. The research methods were the study of scientific literature, generalizing and analytical methods. Research results, discussion. The study of the peculiarities of the perception of the satirical and humorous works of M. Zoshchenko by students of the national schools of Dagestan will help the teacher determine the most effective methods and techniques for developing the level of perception of the concepts of “humor”, “satire” and “comic” in schoolchildren. Conclusion. The problem of studying satirical and humorous works, their artistic specificity, requires its resolution, regardless of the degree of complexity of the work being studied, the psychological characteristics of their perception by schoolchildren.
UDC: 398.89
Authors: Lyubov A. Abukaeva;
An analysis of Mari guest songs from the standpoint of linguistic folkloristics allows us to discover the interdependence and interconnection of song lyrics and rituals and rites of receiving guests. The functioning of Mari ritual songs is determined by their place and function in the rite. The purpose of this work is to analyze the functions, usage patterns and the goals of Mari guest songs. Materials and methods. The object of research is the Mari hospitality rites and guest song texts. The research materials were collected by the author of the article in 1989−2019, the analysis also involved materials from the folklore expeditions of the Mari State University. The textocentric and anthropocentric approaches, the descriptive method and contextual analysis have found application in the work. Results of the study, discussion. When determining the functions of guest songs, it should be borne in mind that they include those that are associated with rituals and songs that either did not have such a connection initially, or have lost it over time. The accumulative function of a guest song comes down to storing information, cultural codes. The aesthetic function of guest songs should be considered from two perspectives: the aestheticization of life; and guest song as an example of folk poetry, expressiveness, wealth of the Mari language. The regulatory function of a guest song in the context of hospitality is reduced to the fact that the songs accompany significant moments of receiving guests. With the anthropocentric approach, emotive and catharsic functions should be distinguished. The guest song plays the role of an indicator and regulator of relations between members of an ethnic community. Guest songs contribute to introducing the younger generation to the traditions of their people. They contain social norms and values that are assimilated not only by an individual, but also by the ethnic community as a whole. Conclusion. The functions of guest songs are intertwined, closely interacting. Depending on the genre variety of the song, one or another function is brought to the fore.
UDC: 81-13
Authors: Konstantin I. Brinev; Nadezhda N. Shpilnaya;
At the center of Russian cognitive linguistics is the problem of “language and cognition”, its solution is associated with the recognition of the subjectivity of knowledge and language. This approach goes back to the cognitive theory of the language of J. Lakoff. However, with this approach it is difficult to answer the question of the possibility of scientific knowledge as objective knowledge. Consequently, the cognitive theory of language is unsatisfactory and needs critical discussion. Purpose. The purpose of the article is to discuss the status of scientific knowledge and knowledge in the language against the background of the theory of language in cognitive linguistics adopted under the influence of J. Lakoff’s works. Results, discussion: A critical assessment of the cognitive theory of the language of J. Lakoff, proclaiming the subjectivity of knowledge enshrined in the language, shows its inconsistency and, as a consequence, unsatisfactory. J. Lakoff’s recognition of the categories of the basic level as the preferred source of knowledge does not hold water, because the expansion of the possibilities of perception in the categories of the basic level cannot be carried out for the coordination of experimental and scientific knowledge, since scientific knowledge is associated with the confirmation of the hypothesis about the structure of the world. The idea is formulated in the work that objective theoretical knowledge is represented in the language. The initial premise of this approach is the provision according to which objective scientific knowledge is possible only by virtue of the objectivity of knowledge recorded in the language. Based on criticism of the key position of cognitive linguistics about the priority of experience in cognition of reality, the article substantiates that language includes a hypothesis about the structure of the world. Conclusion: The analysis presented in the article shows the need to revise the concept of the correlation of language and knowledge from the point of view of the concept of objective truth (truth as correspondence to facts) and from the point of view of depsychologization of language knowledge.
UDC: 81
Authors: Aliya R. Ismagilova; Marina I. Solnyshkina; Olga G. Palutina;
Studying the issues of linguistic landscapes is relevant today, since in the modern world, in which the process of globalization is actively unfolding, the linguistic landscape clearly demonstrates the preferred languages of the population. Purpose: the purpose of the investigation is to point out dominant-languages and functions of foreign languages in the formation of the linguistic landscape. Materials and methods: the research material in this article was presented by 221 ergonyms of commercial objects, which are foreign-language names. The main methods of investigation are quantitative and elements of qualitative analyzes. Results, discussion: the analysis of these ergonyms allows us to identify the most preferred foreign languages for the nomination, thus allowing us to predict which social processes can affect the society. The results of the study showed that the dominant foreign language of ergonyms is English. Thus, it can be noted that the linguistic landscape of Kazan is influenced by the process of westernization. Conclusion: preserving one’s national identity means preserving the language, culture, traditions and history of people. Thus, on the one hand, foreign borrowings can be considered as a source of enrichment of languages, and, on the other hand, as factors that erase linguistic and cultural boundaries. The process of globalization and its subsequent impact on the linguistic landscape occurs as a result of the expansion of cultural contacts. One of the most noticeable processes taking place after the expansion of cultural exchange and dialogue that is taking place at present is the process of westernization, which is determined by the influence of mainly Western languages and cultural movements.
UDC: 81'22
Authors: Marika A. Kalyuga;
The article is devoted to the analysis of the instrumental case and the prepositional phrases protiv + genitive, pered + instrumental, v + accusative, na + accusative, s + instrumental and po + dative that mark a Prototype and a Parameter of Comparison in the Russian language. Purpose. The purpose of the article is to analyse the role of conceptual metaphors in the development of the meanings of the Prototype and the Parameter of Comparison. Relevance of the research. Non-propositional and prepositional phrases are analysed within such a promising research framework as cognitive linguistics. Theoretical framework. The study is conducted within the cognitivelinguistic framework or, more precisely, the theory of conceptual metaphor, according to which one domain is conceptualised and expressed in terms of another, more concrete, domain. Results, discussion. The study demonstrates the role of conceptual metaphors in the development of meanings of a Prototype and a Parameter of Comparison of the synonymous syntactic structures. Conclusion. It is shown that, on the basis of the metaphor similarity is proximity the prototype of comparison is understood as a destination or as a participant of the movement towards. Accordingly, and s + instrumental, which indicates a Participant of joint action (for example, movement towards) developed the meaning of the Prototype of Comparison. The metaphorical understanding of comparing as pairing up, putting near or opposite explains the use of protiv + genitive and pered + instrumental to mark a Prototype of comparison. A parameter of comparison is metaphorically understood as an instrument, with the help of which something is compared. In turn, an instrument is conceptualised as a path. Based on the parameter of comparison is an instrument and an instrument is a path metaphors, two constructions that indicate a Path in their spatial meanings, the instrumental case and prepositional phrase po + dative, developed the meaning of the Parameter of comparison.
UDC: 821.161.1.
Authors: Lyudmila N. Sarbash;
The subject of the research is the concept of nature in N. G. Garin-Mikhailovsky’s drama “Zora”. The concept as a unit of the creative process is actively studied in modern literary criticism, but the dramatic works of N. G. Garin-Mikhailovsky have not been analyzed in the aspect of the writer's conceptual sphere, which this study contributes to. The purpose of the undertaken research is to identify the concept of "nature" in the drama "Zora", in the semantic field of which the main dichotomy "man − nature" is manifested. In the work, comparative and structural-descriptive methods of analysis are used, which allow us to show the concept of "nature" as an integrated phenomenon that includes such components as patriarchal consciousness, national mythologemes, ethnic constants. The article analyzes the content field of the concept of nature, which is associated with various aspects of the spiritual plan. In the drama “Zora”, the confrontation of two worlds is indicated: industrial civilization, which the Englishman Harry seeks to “inoculate” in a foreign land, and the natural − patriarchal world, in complete harmony with which the Chuvash and the beautiful Zora live. This opposition is dominant in the play, determining its ideological orientation, plot dynamics, figurative system. Nature appears in the broad context of the worldview of the people, religious and mythological consciousness: national mythologemes, pagan gods - good Tura and evil Irik are “involved” in the play. Mythological images of folk culture reinforce the natural constant of the play. The national song characterizes the figurative-folklore, mythological understanding of the Chuvash about a good and omnipotent God who gives a person all the blessings of life. The different facets of the concept of nature allow us to see the correlation of two songs and the natural world with the life of the main character in the play. The concept “nature” organizes the artistic space of the drama and demonstrates a wide semantic range.
UDC: 811.111
Authors: Elena S. Stepanova;
The article deals with a doctor’s stereotyped image. The definition of the notion “doctor’s myth” is given in the article. This notion is defined as a system of value outlook representation of a generalized doctor’s image which is typical of this or that linguocultural society and which is perceived as a well-known fact. A doctor (as a generalized image) is associated with a positive result – maintaining and improving human health. Purpose. The aim of the research is the description of value outlook representation of a generalized doctor’s image, which is represented by phenomenological cognitive structures and linguistic cognitive structures, which are expressed by language means. Material and methods. The autobiographical work of fiction “Your Life in My Hands: A Junior Doctor’s Story” by Rachel Clarke, the English doctor, who specializes in palliative care and works in NHS, served as a material for the research. In the course of the study, the cultural analysis was used, which involves taking into account the set of representations associated with the doctor’s image; and the descriptive and analytical contextual method, which is a direct analysis of the context containing linguistic representations of cognitive structures. Results, Discussion. The analysis shows that myths about doctors are represented by stereotypes which are represented by different stylistic devices and have an axiological component. Axiological components of a particular doctor’s image differ. Generalized characteristics of a doctor’s image can be systemized in the suggested typology of professional stereotypes of medical specialists. Linguistic analysis of the language material allowed us to define stylistic devices that represent the typology of professional stereotypes of a doctor’s image: implicated comparative expressions, metaphoric models and repetitions.
UDC: 821.511.143
Authors: Ruslan Z. Khairullin;
There is a reason why Yuvan Nikolayevich Shestalov became the first professional Mansi poet: he managed not only to organically embody the national images of his native culture into his poetry, but also to make them understandable to any reader. The images he created are connected with his native land and serve as guides to the world of unusual Mansi poetry. The Shestalov’s poetry is surprisingly harmonious and environmentally friendly. He calls on his native people to live in harmony with nature, to preserve and protect their language, culture, traditions and customs. The purpose of the research is to trace the evolution of the image of the world and man in the poetic works of Yuvan Shestalov in the 60–80s of the XX century. Materials and methods. The primary research materials were the poetic works of Yu. Shestalov, the most characteristic of the period under review, as well as scientific publications on the problems of literatures of the North people. The main research methods are historical-literary, historical-cultural, and comparative-historical. The research results and discussion. In the course of research of Shestalov’s poetic work of the period under review three stages of its evolution are identified: 1) the 60s, which are characterized by a harmonious relationship between man and nature and their corresponding reflection in poetry; 2) the 70s – an attempt to poetic “synthesis” of traditional and new (technocratic approach to the development of the North); 3) the 80s – the destruction of the harmony of man and nature and calls to prevent an ecological catastrophe, which is reflected in the poem “The crane’s call”. Conclusion. As a result, the author came to the conclusion that the image evolution of the world and man in the works of Yuvan Shestalov of the 60–80s of the last century is caused not only by socio-historical and socio-cultural changes in society but also by the laws of the all-Russian literary process and the peculiarities of the poet's creative personality.
Section: REVIEWS
Authors: Angelika Molnar;
Монография Багаутдиновой Гульзады Га- дульяновны «Искусство и художник в романах И. А. Гончарова» (Йошкар-Ола, 2018 186 с.) является многолетним изысканием автора по указанной тематике. Несмотря на то, что ав- тор монографии занимается этой научной про- блемой около 20 лет, ее актуальность несомнен- на, так как тема творческой личности является сквозной в романных произведениях писателя. Кроме того, Г. Г. Багаутдиновой обоснованно выбран научный литературоведческий ракурс: она не столько пишет об образе творческой лич- ности, сколько ею реконструируются произведе- ния, созданные Александром Адуевым-прозаи- ком и Борисом Райским-художником.