VESTNIK 3(31) 2018
- VESTNIK 3(31) 2018
- Date publication on the site:
- 2018-08-30 11:44:54
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RESEARCH OF METACOGNITIVE AWARENESS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
Authors: Nadezhda N. Babikova; Olga A. Maltseva; Evgeniya N. Startseva; Marina S Turkina;
Federal state standards of higher education contain the general cultural competence “The ability to self-organization and self-educationˮ. An important component of this competence is the “ability to learnˮ, or a metacognitive awareness. The actual problem of educational practice is the measurement of the level of students’ metacognitive awareness and the analyses of the possibility of explicit inclusion of metacognitive knowledge in the process of teaching specific subjects. So, the purpose of this reseach is to study the metacognitive awareness of students of the Syktyvkar State University. Materials and methods. 186 students (about 85 percent of the total) of the full-time department of the Institute of Economics and Finance took part in the voluntary survey. Metacognitive awareness was measured using the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory questionnaire (authors G. Shrow, R. S. Dennison). The questionnaire consists of 52 questions and allows you to measure two components of metacognition: metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive processes. Statistical processing of the results is performed in the Excel spreadsheet. Results. The average metacognitive awareness was 37,2 responses out of 52, i. e. 72 percent. More than a half of the students have scores higher than average. Metacognitive skills (processes), which are rarely used by students, are established. Discussion. The question of applying data on the metacognition of students in the practical activities of the teacher is discussed. Conclusion. It is concluded that the measurement and analysis of metacognitive awareness can be a tool for teachers which will allow to organize activities to improve metacognitive knowledge and skills, taking into account the individual characteristics of students, and the generalized characteristics of training groups.
FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE OF FUTURE COACH IN THE EDUCATIONAL SPACE OF A SPORTS UNIVERSITY
Authors: Anzhelika V. Gut;
Introduction. The relevance of the formation of psychological and pedagogical competence of coaches (sports teachers), connected with the peculiarities and risks of coaching, is considered in the work. The work of a coach in modern conditions is determined by a new status: the demand for sports teachers is gaining a social scale within the framework of population’s health improvement programs, within the framework of organization of healthy leisure of young people, within the framework of formation of new values and life priorities of younger generation. This need is fixed in all state educational standards in the form of general cultural and professional competencies. Purpose. To consider and compare the development of analytical, prognostic, projective, reflexive, organizational, information and developing skills of students of the direction “Physical Cultureˮ of the Volga Region Academy of Physical Culture, Sports and Tourism as the basis for the formation of psychological and pedagogical competence. Materials and Methods: Analysis of the results of survey of 1st and 4th year students of the direction “Physical Cultureˮ of the Volga Region Academy of Physical Culture, Sports and Tourism, as well as analysis of the expert evaluation of the Academy teachers and employers (teachers of secondary schools and coaches of sports schools, for which students were assigned in practice). Results, discussion. The study demonstrates positive dynamics of development in most indicators. Observed qualitative growth indicators: projective and predictive skills; students emphasize the need to develop projective skills as a primary indicator of the professional maturity of young teachers; reflexive and organizational skills; these skills are indicators of intrapersonal development, including the development of communication skills; information and developmental skills; the development of these skills is facilitated by the saturation of the Volga Region Academy of electronic information resources; analytical skills and efficiency of knowledge; these skills are associated with scientific and theoretical activities, and the greatest development is obtained in the master's degree. Conclusion. The study confirms the practical orientation of the bachelor's degree in the direction of “Physical Cultureˮ of the Volga Region Academy of Physical Culture, Sports and Tourism. There is also a high need for disciplines of psychological and pedagogical profile. The general conclusion is that the university lays a positive dynamic in the development of professional competence.
MODEL OF FORMATION OF KEY UNIVERSAL EDUCATIONAL ACTIONS OF STUDENTS OF 5−7 GRADES AT MATH LESSONS
Authors: Marya V. Demidova;
Introduction. The article analyzes the publications of Russian authors on the organization and methodology of formation of universal educational actions (UEA) of students of 5−7th grades. It was concluded that there is a significant interest of scientists and practitioners in the formation of these actions in various academic disciplines of general and additional education, as well as insufficient knowledge of the problem of organization of the formation of universal educational actions, in particular at math lessons. Nevertheless, the Federal educational standard of general education indicates not only the need of the formation of UEA, but also makes demands on the conditions of their formation. In connection with this, the problem of creating a methodological model for the formation of key universal educational actions of students of a basic school at math lessons was identified. The purpose of this article is to develop a methodological model for the formation of key universal educational actions of students of 5−7th grades in mathematics lessons and to justificate each included component. Materials and methods. The materials and methods of the study constitute a system-activity approach to learning, the basic requirements for the development of educational models, methods of analysis of normative documents in the field of General education, analysis and generalization of research on the problem to be solved. The results of the study, discussion: the analysis of didactic principles, research results, clarification of the essence of the key (UEA), formed in the teaching of mathematics allowed to formulate the basic didactic principles of the formation of key UEA: expediency, phasing, operational completeness, continuity. On the basis of these principles the methodical model of formation of key universal educational actions of students of 5−7 grades at lessons of mathematics is developed and each component entering into its structure is proved. Conclusion. The methodical model of formation of key universal educational actions of students of 5–7th grades in math class determines the main structural and functional components and involves creation of a cluster of tasks aimed at the formation of key UEA, diagnostic tools for further diagnosis of the results.
ANALYSIS OF EXISTING EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVING THE TEACHING PROCESS AT THE UNIVERSITY
Authors: Eleonora V. Egorova; Natalia A. Krasheninnikova; Ekaterina I. Krasheninnikova;
The article deals with the problem of teaching English the students of non-linguistic departments. The purpose of the research is to analyze existing educational programs in the English language for non-linguistic students according to Federal State Education Standards 3 and 3+, to compare general cultural competences, which are formed during English classes with students of non-linguistic departments. Academic programs in a foreign language in the Ulyanovsk State University and Federal State Education Standards act as the main material of the study. The authors use such methods as analysis and generalization. They also compare the content of competences, which are formed during the study of a foreign language. The article notes that the content of some competences specified in the academic programs in foreign languages does not correspond to the discipline under study. Analyzing the existing academic programs in the English language in the Ulyanovsk State University the authors show the distribution of hours (credits) according to the departments/institutes and terms. The authors pay attention to the lack of midpoint control at the end of the 1st and the 2nd terms and to uneven distribution of tutor’s academic load, which leads to professional burnout of employees. Taking into account the European competencies of foreign language proficiency, the authors recommend the distribution of the academic load while learning a foreign language in accordance with Federal State Education Standards 3++. In conclusion, the authors underline the need for continuity between the three levels of higher education (Bachelor's program/ Specialist’s program, Master's program, postgraduate training program) in teaching a foreign language.
FORMATION OF MULTICULTURAL FOREIGN-LANGUAGE COMPETENCE OF THE FUTURE SPECIALIST OF SOCIAL AND CULTURAL SERVICES AND TOURISM
Authors: Anastasia A. Katekina; Natalia S. Morova;
Introduction. The article is devoted to actual aspects of effective formation of multicultural foreign - language competence. The author depicts the features of foreign language speech of students of a higher school, and proposes one of the possible options of organising work on a topic. Purpose: identify and experimentally test the features of the formation of multicultural foreign-language competence of students of a non-linguistic university. Materials and methods. The theoretical and methodological basis of the research is based on the concept of humanization and humanitarization of professional education of V. Komelina and the concept of communicative learning of E. Passov. In the process of experimental verification, empirical methods were used. Results, discussion. Experimental work has shown that the identification of the peculiarities of formation of multicultural foreign-language competence of the future specialist with the application of three stages of work on the oral topic make it possible to improve the level of the multicultural foreign-language competence of the future specialist in social and cultural services and tourism. The result of our experiment was an increase in the level of formation of all the components of multicultural foreign-language competence of students of the experimental groups. Formation of multicultural foreign-language competence of students was carried out on the basis of realization of ideas of humanization, when the purpose and meaning of the educational process are the development and selfdevelopment of individualization, self-actualization of the personality of the future specialist. The student studies culture through language, texts, authentic audio and video materials, but for the study of culture it is not enough simply to explain any country-specific reality. Conclusion. In the context of global socio-cultural transformations and the formation of concepts of development of Russian society, the role of professional education, focused on the cultural paradigm, is growing. Therefore, the higher school faces the task of preserving the enduring socio-cultural values of Russian education and updating its content in accordance with the demands of the 21st century. The results of the research showed that there are no ready-made recipes, the use of which immediately solves all the problems of the formation of multicultural foreign-language competence of the future specialist in social and cultural services and tourism. We can state the possibility and effectiveness of using the developed and proven conditions for the formation of multicultural foreign-language competence of the future specialist in the process of studying other educational disciplines that have their own specifics, which implies the creative assimilation of the results of our study. In the long term, the presented work could become the basis for further research on the possibilities of formation of multicultural foreign-language competence of the future specialist of other professional profiles.
EFFECT OF EXERCISE INTENSITY ON THE DYNAMICS OF PHYSICAL CAPACITY OF STUDENTS
Authors: Ivan I. Kochetkov;
During the period of study, student is preparing for the future profession, intensively mastering competences therefore, it is important to develop his ability to cope with intellectual and physical overloads. Working capacity, as an important part of the overall professional competence, is determined by the physical structure and psychological capabilities of a man, as a biological system. The urgency of the problem is to determine the number of weekly regular classes of physical training, which will allow students to reach a high level of efficiency. Physical culture and sports provide a high level of mental and physical performance, with methodically correct organization of the educational process. The object of our research is the process of organization of physical fitness of MarSU students at physical culture lessons. The subject of the study-is the improvement of the process of use of means of physical culture to achieve and maintain the high level of physical and mental health of students. The aim of the research was to study the effect of the intensity of training sessions on the performance indicators of MarSU students, which is necessary to develop recommendations of improving the level of students’ physical development. The material for the research was the indicators of physical performance of students obtained as a result of tests conducted at the beginning and at the end of the academic year. Research methodology was as follows: 4 experimental and 1 control group of MarSU students were formed. In groups, classes on physical culture with different intensity were held throughout the academicweek. The conducted experiments on the variation of the intensity of physical activity among the 2nd year students of the Mari State University showed that during the academic year the students significantly increased the level of physical efficiency, which is determined by the intensity of weekly physical activity onphysical education classes.
FEATURES OF THE CONTENT OF SELF-AWARENESS OF MIDDLE- AND LONGDISTANCES RUNNERS, DEPENDING ON SPORTS QUALIFICATIONS AND GENDER DIFFERENCES
Authors: Ayvika S Malanova;
The article presents a study aimed at identifying the features of self-awareness of runners for middle and long distances, depending on: a) the growth of sport qualification; b) gender differences. To obtain the data the standardized questionnaires were used, the filling of which involves a reflexive analysis indirectly characterizing the content features of self-awareness. The features of athletes' awareness of the emotional sphere, personal characteristics, attitude to themselves, as well as the reflexive abilities were measured. The statistical processing of the data revealed significant gender differences. Women of I–II athletic titles realize their own emotions better than men and more effectively cope with their emotional states, as well as have more expressed self-motivation and self-blame. Male athletes of the I–II grade have more expressed than women, awareness of the impressions they produce on others, as well as higher self-esteem. Women who have a CMS discharge understand the emotions of other people better than men. For MS / MSIC men, the ability to control their emotions is far superior to that of women. The correlation between the level of sportsmanship and a number of significant features of self-awareness has been revealed in women: a) the higher the level of sportsmanship, the lower the capacity for empathy, the awareness of other people’s emotions, and the integral level of emotional intelligence; b) the higher the level of sportsmanship, the higher the awareness of other people's attitudes towards oneself, and also the higher the capacity for conscious self-organization and consistency in the organization of actions. In men, only one significant correlation has been identified: the higher the level of sports skills, the higher the indicators of awareness and management of emotional states. At the same time, the obtained results may also indicate a lack of «sensitivity» of the questionnaires to the characteristics of the measured indicators in athletes.
MARKERS OF EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY OF THE SCHOOL
Authors: Marina D. Matyushkina;
The task of identifying the characteristics (markers) of the school, most strongly associated with its performance indicators, remains relevant today. At the same time, the effectiveness of the school is largely related to the characteristics of the student population and with the influence of family factors. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the contribution of the school, which corresponds to the notion of “efficiencyˮ, which requires special clarification. Purpose: theoretical and empirical analysis to identify the markers of efficiency and effectiveness of schools. The methods: the analysis of concepts, the analysis of publications by foreign and domestic authors, as well as the correlation analysis on an array of 59 schools in St. Petersburg, in which a comprehensive sociopedagogical study of quality was conducted (questionnaire survey of teachers, students and parents). Results and discussions: various interpretations of the notions of “effectivenessˮ and “efficiencyˮ in relation to school activities are examined. Models of an effective school are presented and discussed, as well as results of a metaanalysis of data that reveal the main effectiveness markers. The author's results on revealing (on an array of data of socially-pedagogical research of schools) indicators most connected with the achievements of schools at a Unified State Exam are analyzed and discussed. The revealed markers of effectiveness of schools in St. Petersburg are compared with international data. Such indicators as innovative activity of teachers, use of computers in school, practice of tutoring, etc. are analyzed. The differences between result-oriented and effective schools and a possible way of quantifying effectiveness are discussed on a concrete example. In conclusion, the directions of the use of the obtained results in the management of the school and the prospects for further research on this problem are considered.
CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO THE CONTENT FORMATION OF EDUCATION OF THE MARI ETHNIC SCHOOL: THE 1920S AND 1930S
Authors: Vitali T. Mikhailov;
The article examines the main approaches to the content formation of education of the ethnic school in 1920s −1930s depending on the national and educational policy of the Russian State by the example of the Mari region. During this period, the foundations of the national system of education and, as a consequence, the national educational books were laid, because the main content of education is expressed in educational literature: programs, textbooks and manuals. In this regard, the purpose of this reseach is to comprehensively study, summarize and analyze the content of the education of the national school and, as a consequence, the contents of the educational book in the Mari region in 1920s–1930s. Research methods: the research is based on the theoretical analysis and synthesis of historical, culturological, scientific-pedagogical, ethnographic sources, archival materials and manuscripts, and a complex of educational literature. The study revealed: the ethnic textbook, including the Mari, fulfilled a dual function in the period under study: 1) organizing the process of assimilation of the content of education, forming the ability of students to accumulate personal social experience, assessing phenomena and events of the surrounding reality on the basis of the Marxist doctrine of development of human society, determine their place in the environment; 2) formation of student’s ethnic identity, instilling love and respect for the native people and language, learning the history of the people and their spiritual values. Simultaneously the educational literature reflected the formation and development of Mari linguistics and literary language. The advanced methodological ideas of the domestic teaching staff, the didactic requirements aimed at the development of student’s creative abilities and independence, emotional-figurative and abstract-logical thinking and communicative competence are embodied in the programs and textbooks. In this regard the evolution of the Mari ethnic textbook is of interest as a historical and cultural heritage and at the same time as a valuable experience in the creation of textbooks for the ethnic school.
APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF EMOTIONAL VOCABULARY OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN WITH SPEECH DISORDER
Authors: Elena R. Mustaeva; Lidija F. Fatikhova;
The article presents an analysis of scientific and methodological approaches to the study of emotional vocabulary, including linguistic, psycholinguistic, psychological and psycho-physiological aspects. The carried out analysis of the research allowed the authors to reveal certain fragmentation in the works of a number of authors concerning the study and development of emotional vocabulary of children with speech disorders. The purpose of the study was to determine optimal directions of psychological and pedagogical research of emotional vocabulary of preschool children with general underdevelopment of speech of the 3d level. The use of L. F. Fatikhova and A. A. Kharisova’s diagnostic technique “Study of the ability to recognize emotional statesˮ based on the study of such a group of children as preschool children with general underdevelopment of speech of the 3d level, made it possible to distinguish the following features of mastering emotional vocabulary: children experience greater difficulties in determining and naming emotional states of plot pictures, rather than of portrait ones; the need to identify and name emotional states relying on facial expressions (in portrait pictures of the first series) for the children of this category as a whole is higher than with reliance on speech material. The authors concluded that in the process of studying emotional vocabulary of children with speech disorders, it is necessary to take into account the level of development of an impressive and expressive vocabulary, both emotionally neutral and expressive and evaluative vocabulary, the degree of paralinguistic means of communication and prosodic components of speech, the state of cognitive functions and emotional intelligence. Theoretical analysis of the problem and results of the experimental study made it possible to identify directions and content of the complex psychological and pedagogical diagnostics of emotional vocabulary of this group of preschool children.
DIDACTIC POSSIBILITIES OF RUSSIAN LANGUAGE TEXTBOOKS FOR THE FORMATION OF COGNITIVE UNIVERSAL EDUCATIONAL ACTIONS
Authors: Vladislav Yu. Smirnov;
Introduction: The leading goal of national education at the present stage of school development is not the accumulation of specific knowledge and the formation of individual skills of students, but the formation of universal educational skills and on their basis the assimilation of basic knowledge, and most importantly – the ability to independently update and improve their education in a rapidly changing socio-cultural situation. The main means of formation of cognitive UEA at Russian language lessons are Russian language textbooks. Purpose: in the process of analysis of leading educational and metodological complexes in the Russian language for the secondary school to identify the features of organization of the material, and also didactic possibilities of textbooks in the aspect of forming the cognitive universal educational actions of modern schoolchildren. Materials and methods: the materials of the study were textbooks on the Russian language for grades 5–6: textbooks edited by M. T. Baranov, V. V. Babayzteva, P. A. Lecant and М. М. Razumovskaya; in the process of analysis the methods of comparison, classification, systematization and generalization were used. Results, discussion: as a result, it was concluded that the didactic capabilities of modern textbooks in the Russian language meet the requirements of the educational standard, although the authors of educational complexes use a variety of approaches to the development of cognitive UEA in secondary schools. One of the main tasks facing a teacher is not only competent thinking over of the main stages of the lesson and methods of work in accordance with the proposed logic of a textbook in presentation of the material but also the search of effective pedagogical conditions for the activation of the process of development of cognitive universal educational activities in the lessons of the Russian language. Conclusion: the leading means of cognition in the sysitem of teaching the Russian language, as a suppliment to educational and methodological complexes, can be creative tasks as well as audio-visual aids, that contribute to the effective development of cognitive universal educational activities of modern schoolchildren.
THE IMPORTANCE OF TUTOR SUPPORT IN THE TRAINING OF THE FUTURE BALLET DANCER
Authors: Ksenia A. Tsaregorodtseva;
Nowadays there are significant changes in different spheres of life, including education. The need to reform the educational system is directly related to the transition to post-industrial information society, where not only the already acquired knowledge of people but also the potential for continuous development of human’s professional and personal qualities throughout the life cycle play more and more important role. The modern educational process is aimed at the formation of independent, initiative and creative personality, ready to perform his potential activity. Despite the fact that the fundamental school of classical ballet was created in Russia, educational reforms also affected professional educational institutions. So, the main task that faces the educational organization is to keep up with the times, preserving the traditions of the Russian ballet school. In the article, we consider the importance of tutoring in the training of a future ballet dancer and reveal the general meaning of such terms as “tutoring” and “tutor support”, describe the methods and approaches used by teachers in the theoretical and practical part of the educational process. As criteria determining the value of tutor support in the training of a future ballet dancer, the assessment of the formation of his general and professional competence was chosen. For this purpose, two groups were created: a group of 32 students, test subjects, and an expert-group of teachers and leading soloists-artists of the Mari State Opera and Ballet Theater named after E. Sapaeva, who evaluated the results. The analysis of expert assessments of the formation of the general and professional competence of a future ballet dancer at the initial and final stage of the research made it possible to state that tutoring in the training of a future ballet dancer gives positive results and contributes to the formation of a highly educated creative personality.
PHYSICAL PREPAREDNESS AS A COMPONENT OF STUDENTS’ READINESS FOR COMPETITIVE ACTIVITY
Authors: Natal'ya V. Yambaeva; Ol'ga L. Shabalina;
The article analyzes the normative indicators of physical fitness, control and transfer tests, generally accepted in the children's sports school, with the effectiveness of the competitive activity of athletes. Such concepts as competitive activity, physical readiness, general and special physical preparation are also considered. Competitive activity is a specific motor activity, which is carried out, as a rule, in the conditions of official competitions at the limit of the athlete's mental and physical strength, the ultimate goal of which is to establish personal results. The end result of competitive activity is a sporting achievement that is characterized by a quantitative or qualitative level of performance in sports. In sports games, competitive activities are complex, due to the need to interact with teammates, counter opponents, a wide range of options for competitive struggle and an a variety of game actions. Athletes perform a great number of technical and tactical actions, each of which can affect the achievement of the goal in the match. The physical fitness of the athlete is an integral part of the preparation for the competitive activity. Physical fitness is the ability of the body's functional systems. It reflects the necessary level of development of those physical qualities on which competitive success in a particular sport depends. In our study, the following types of sports preparedness are of particular interest: general and special physical training. General physical training is a process of improving the motor physical qualities aimed at the comprehensive and harmonious physical development of a person. Special physical training is a process of developing physical qualities and skills that are the prerequisite for the fastest mastering of specific techniques.
PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF LABOR MOTIVATION IN DIFFERENT CATEGORIES OF UNEMPLOYED
Authors: Svetlana N. Andreeva; Tatiana N. Golovanova; Svetlana V. Bakhtina;
Introduction. The article deals with the concept of “motivationˮ, various approaches to description of motivation activity, the structure of labor motivation. The hypothesis is the assumption that there are differences in the motivation of the unemployed, depending on certain factors (gender, age, work experience). Purpose: the purpose of the study is to identify the characteristics of labor motivation in different categories of unemployed. Materials and methods. The study sample consists of 60 unemployed, who were retrained in the center. The sample was divided into 4 groups, 15 people each, according to the age, gender and work experience. The first group consisted of unemployed girls between the ages of 18 and 25 years, who did not have work experience, or who worked for a short time. The second group was made up of unemployed young men, also without seniority, between the ages of 18 and 25 years. Basically, these two groups are represented by graduates of schools, higher and secondary professional educational institutions, who have not found work in their main specialty. The third group includes unemployed women aged from 25 to 40 years, who are registered in the employment center, who have a long working experience. The fourth group consists of men aged from 25 to 40 years, who are registered in the employment center with a record of working experience. The study of the conscious level of labor motivation was carried out with the help of the method “Value orientationsˮ by M. Rokich, the unconscious level of labor motivation (hidden motivation) – with the help of the psycho-semantic technique “Color test of relationsˮ (CTR) by A. M. Etkind. Results, discussion. The results of the study of labor motivation are presented graphically and described. Conclusions on gender and age differences in labor motivation of the unemployed have been formulated on the basis of the statistical analysis of the results. There were some differences between the groups of the unemployed, which allows us to talk about the prospects of further research in this direction in the light of professional orientation, career orientation and work motivation of representatives of different generations and mentalities. Conclusion. Thus, data were obtained that indicate that for the younger generation such concept as “careerˮ is now really more attractive and the least attractive is the concept of “laborˮ, which is a certain indicator of the modern development of society and also requires further study and forecasting.
THE PROBLEM OF DEPRESSION OF PERSONS AGED LATE MATURITY IN A SITUATION OF LOSS OF HEALTH
Authors: Eleonora A. Loskutova;
Introduction. The problem of depression of persons at the age of late maturity in a situation of health loss is quite relevant due to the increasing personal and social activity of persons of pre-retirement and retirement age in recent years. Loss of health of these persons often leads to the development of depressive states, which disrupt the process of rehabilitation and adaptation to new living conditions of people who suffered loss of health. This requires the search of new ways of prevention and treatment of depressive disorders of people in late adulthood in a situation of loss of health. Purpose: theoretical and practical study of the problem of depressive states of persons aged late maturity in a situation of loss of health and development of a program of psychotherapeutic measures to reduce depression of such patients. Materials and methods. The bases of the study is an analytical review of the theoretical sources on the problem of depression of persons at the age of late maturity in a situation of health loss, an empirical research of the level of depression of cardiac patients aged late maturity, staying in rehab due to health loss. Obtaining accurate quantitative data on the level and presence of depressive states was implemented using the questionnaire “scale of mood reduction – subdepressionˮ. The results of the study, discussion. The range of problems related to depression of persons aged late maturity in a situation of loss of health is determined, the existence of depression in patients in a situation of loss of health is empirically confirmed, methodical recommendations on overcoming depression of persons aged late maturity in a situation of loss of health are offered. Conclusion. In a study implemented not only analytical review of the theoretical and practical work on the stated problems, but also presented empirical data on the study of depression of persons aged late maturity in a situation of loss of health, formulated a program aimed at a comprehensive medical and psychological solution to the problem of depression of persons aged late maturity in a situation of loss of health.
COMPARATIVE MODELS AND IMAGES IN EASTERN MARI MAJESTIC SONGS
Authors: Lubov A. Abukaeva;
In the majestic songs of Eastern Mari, comparisons are the most productive means of expression. This work is aimed at the analysis of structural and semantic features of the comparisons functioning in the Eastern Mari majestic songs. Structural models of comparison in the analyzed texts are: “a noun in the nominative case + noun in the nominative case + postposition gai / ganeˮ; “a noun in the nominative case + noun in the nominative caseˮ; lexem kam 'less than/ smaller') + negative particle ogyl 'not'; “a noun in the nominative case + postposition dech /dechat / dechyn + adjectiveˮ. There are 3 semantic models of comparisons in Eastern Mari majestic song: “natural object – personˮ, “artifact - personˮ, “natural object - artifactˮ. In majestic songs in honor of the parents the following figurative comparissons are found: kugu tumyn / olmapuyn rudyzho ‘the trunk of a huge oak / apple tree’; children – izi / osh kuen parchazhe ‘twigs of small / white birch’, almapun saskazhe ‘apple blossoms’. The image of the older sister – aka – is created by such comparisons, as tuncha umbak lekshe er keche ‘the morning sun rising over the world’, omarta gych lekshe myuksh ava ‘the Queen bee flying out of the beehive’. Dedicating song to their younger sister – shuzhar, older singers use such comparisons as: vud shavalyn kushtalme saska gae ‘like a flower cultivated by watering’; chever kaiyk gane ‘like a beautiful bird’. The collective image of the family in the majestic songs is represented by bright images, among which the most productive are: shushpyk ige ‘chicks of the nightingale’, turlo-turlo saskan asylzhe ‘the beauty of different-different flowers’, er noltaltshe cholpan ‘the star that rose in the morning’, sukso dene puiyryshyn igyzhe gae ‘as if it were a child of an angel and a prophet’. Figurative comparisons are symbolic and emphasize the attitude to the addressee of the song – from respectful worship to delight and admiration. Comparisons from the dialect language reflect the ethnic view of the world, demonstrate the nature of the appearance of the language creativity of dialect speakers.
FACTORS OF RHYTHMIC PROSE IN THE NOVEL “ORDINARY STORYˮ BY I. A. GONCHAROV
Authors: Gul’zada G. Bagautdinova;
Introduction. Rhythm is a regular periodic repetition of any text elements at regular intervals. For the formation of rhythm it is necessary to repeate rhythmic units in the text at least three times. Rhythm-forming principles are different: in poetic speech it is mainly meter, rhyme, stanza; rhythm of artistic prose is more diverse and variable. There are several types of rhythmically organized prose: rhythm of artistic prose, “rhythmical proseˮ, “ornamental proseˮ, metrized and rhymed prose. Purpose: to identify some factors of rhythmic prose in the novel «Ordinary history » in the context of Goncharov's early works. Materials and methods. The subject of the study is Goncharov’s early novels and first published novel “Ordinary storyˮ. The main method of the research is typological, which allows to reveal certain patterns of the use of artistic techniques throughout the writer’s work. Results, discussion. Rhythmic organization of I .A. Goncharov’s works is the least studied aspect of the writer’s poetics, the study of which literary scholars started only at the beginning of the 21st century. The scientific novelty of the article is determined by the study of new rhythmical factors in the “Ordinary historyˮ of I. A. Goncharov in the context of writer’s early works. Conclusion. In “Ordinary storyˮ by I. A. Goncharov rhythm – forming factors typical for his early work as well as new ones more typical for the poetic speech: chiasm, anaphora, ring are both detected. The function of rhythm is not only in making the compositional structure of the text, but also in revealing the comic principle, and in focussing the reader's attention on the most important sense – forming fragments of the text. Rhythm, along with humor, is defined by the author of this article as an aesthetic marker of the artistry of Goncharov's prose.
INTEGRATION OF THE NATIONAL MEDIA WITH SOCIAL NETWORKS (BY THE EXAMPLE OF MASS MEDIA OF THE REPUBLIC OF TATARSTAN)
Authors: Vasil Z. Garifullin; Linar R. Zakirov;
Social networks today are a kind of indicator of social interest. Thanks to social networks, it is possible to determine what information product Internet users prefer. Against the background of rapid development of information technology the news picture, as well as the perception of information on the Internet is changing. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the process of integration of national mass media of Tatarstan with the most popular social networks. As the main research method the comparative content analysis of communities of the largest national publications of RT in social networks was used. On the basis of the analysis, we positively evaluated the process of integration of national media RT with the most popular social networks, as well as their adaptation to new realities. If we highlight the main flaw, which can be seen in all of the national media of RT, it is that many of them are characterized by the direct broadcast of content from the site to the social networks. In fact, the website is the only source of content for communities in such social networks as “Facebookˮ, “Vkontakteˮ, “Twitterˮ and only in “Instagramˮ one can see the development of the unique content. The main advantage of using social networks by traditional media is the unlimited audience. The second feature of the work of the national media in social networks is greater opportunities to express pluralism of .options. Analysis of comments in the communities of national editions in social networks leads to the conclusion that users have the opportunity to feel their involvement in solving urgent problems of society. The third feature is the dependence of users on the type of publication. Private editions, in comparison with the state ones, have fewer restrictions, and their audience willingly communicates and easily responds to “provocationsˮ of the moderators. Audience of official publications is more inclined not to discuss, but to read the information presented on the pages of periodicals.
Authors: Dinara R. Kochemasova; Ekaterina B. Voronina;
The concepts “discourseˮ appeared in connection with expansion of linguistic research beyond the sentence – into the sphere of superphrasal syntax. Therefore, discourse from a linguistic point of view is a set consisting of a logical chain of sentences which are in a semantic connecton. This article is devoted to the study of professional discourse. In this article the concept of “professional discourseˮ is described and defined in a series of related concepts. This article examines the professional discourse, understood as the communication of specialists among themselves or with those who apply to them for advice or professional assistanse. Professional communication is opposed to nonprofessional. Discourse plays an important role in professional socialization, which is the process by means of which people acquire the specialized knowledge, skills, relations, norms and interests necessary for effective implementation of their professional roles. Professional discourse is the language created by professionals with special training to perform operations in a workplace. Some scientists consider that it is connected only with communication between the writer and the reader, both of whom are professionals. Others argue that, at least, one of the participants should to be a professional. For example, some scientists claim that one of the defining characteristics of a professional discourse is the importance of status in which a person has a professional role and, therefore, a higher status, than a nonprofessional, that is the reason that the professional discourse usually takes place in an institution. Therefore, further in our work we will try to consider issues of professional discourse in more detail. In article works of Russian and foreign scientists who are engaged in the study of this problem will be considered and analysed.
RELIGIOUS IDEAS IN THE NOVEL OF RINAT KAMAL “TALAKˮ
Authors: Gulnur M. Nabiullina;
The actual problem of search of spiritual and religious values in modern prose is considered. Purpose of the study is to identify religious ideas in the novel of the Bashkir writer Rinat Kamal “Talak”, which requires solving the following tasks: to conduct a comprehensive study of the novel; to determine the role of religion in the formation of spiritual world of the heroes of the novel, to show the influence of Islam ic axiology on the writer’s work, to reveal the role of Islam in the social and cultural life of the novel’s heroes and to identify the fundamental role of religious consciousness in the system of people’s spiritual values. The material for the analysis was the novel “Talak” by R. Kamal and works of Bashkir writers, where the types of demonic women, marked by Yuri Lotman, which most deeply reflect the moral and ethical rules prevail. The subject of the research are the religious ideas based on the ethical positions of the Koran, Sunnah and Sharia, considered by us on the example of the modern novel “Talak” by Rinat Kamal. Comparative, typological, historical and genetic methods, as well as the structural and semantic analysis of the novel were used for this purpose. Religious idea is a kind of source and an important component of the novel “Talak”, which is reflected in everyday scenes in close connection with the historical process. Each episode gradually revealing the character of the Central heroine persuades her to move to a new spiritual stage of life, strengthening the humanistic motives of the work. Difficulties faced by the heroine reveal her sinful for the Muslim woman vices, which are perceived as a consequence of the General decline of religious culture in society. The analysis of the novel showed that the secular and religious ideas are in dialectical relationship, while the religious idea is the basis of the work. The flatness of the heroine to morality, that contradicts her worldview, destroys the fate of relatives and people close to her, and in the end, her own fate. The inner protest of the family members leads the heroine to repentance.
REFLECTION OF THE LANGUAGE IDENTITY OF SUBJECTS OF A POLITICAL DISCOURSE IN INSTITUTIONAL COMMUNICATION
Authors: Flera Ya. Khabibullina; Iraida G. Ivanova;
The article is devoted to the study of the implementation of the linguistic personality of the subjects of political discourse in institutional communication. The purpose of this work is to identify and describe the discursive characteristics of the linguistic personality of a politician in a comparative aspect. The article considers the linguistic personalities of V. V. Putin and E. Macron as the leaders of the leading world powers of the present – the Russian Federation and the Fifth French Republic. The subject of the study is the peculiarities of the language behavior of the subjects of political activity in institutional communication. The material of the study was the texts of the speeches of V. V. Putin and E. Macron at the joint press conference at the St. Petersburg economic forum (24–25 may 2018, St. Petersburg). Objectives of the study: determine the total and individual in the thematic repertoire of the texts of speeches of the presidents; to highlight the leading type of communicative strategies of speakers; to identify the dominant properties of linguistic personalities of the subjects of political discourse; to analyze the linguistic means of influence on the addressee. Methods and techniques: descriptive, comparative, text interpretation, classification and systematics. The authors come to the conclusion that the purpose of V. V. Putin and E. Macron's speeches at the press conference was the formation of positive relations between Russia and France. The analysis of speakers ' speeches allowed to identify the leading type of communication strategies - conventional, which was provided by a meaningful agreement within the following thematic blocks: the development of bilateral relations; ensuring stable foreign policy; implementation of initiatives of the Franco- Russian civil society forum. Identified the dominant properties of the speech by Vladimir Putin: consistency, validity, brevity, which is achieved by using the means of the verbal system accent (clarity, institutionality, explicitely, statistical data). The linguistic identity of the President of France is realized through intense selfpresentation; interpretation of historical and cultural facts; over-communion and promotion of the idea of multilateralism as the leading strategy of peaceful coexistence; alogism; the advanced feature set of beliefs. Among the linguistic resources allocated lexical-syntactic (nominative, verbal, adverbial, adjectival constructions, repetition, anaphora, epiphora) and stylistic tools (metaphor, personification, aterizare).